Enchondromas are benign cartilaginous tumors.
Enchondromas can arise from cartilage remnants in the growth plate.
Another possible origin of enchondromas is, as the name implies, chondrocytes that multiply and enlarge.
Enchondromas grow in the medullary cavity, making them central lesions that can expand outwards.
Enchondromas arise primarily in the medullary cavity of the metaphysis of long bones.
The primary location of enchondromas is the medullary cavity of the metaphysis of the long bones of the hands and feet. The epiphysis of the proximal humerus, distal femur, and proximal tibia are the most prevalent sites.
Enchondromas can also be found in the medullary cavity of the metaphysis of the humerus and femur.
On imaging findings, they can be seen as small, well-defined, central lesions. They grow outwardly and can cause pathologic fractures.
Histologically, they can be described as well-circumscribed nodules of hyaline cartilage.
A very important aspect that characterizes enchondromas is the presence of punctate calcifications of the chondroid matrix.
Treatment consists primarily of surgical removal of the tumor via curettage with bone grafting. Recurrence is uncommon after curettage and bone grafting. However, enchondroma lesions involving long bones are associated with a higher risk of recurrence.
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