There are two components involved in neoplastic progression: the parenchyma, which is the neoplastic cell, and the supporting stroma, which is the non-neoplastic cell—supporting stroma such as connective tissues and blood vessels.
Carcinoma can be seen as benign or malignant. Benign is seen as well-differentiated, with no metastases, necrosis, and low mitotic activity. Malignant is seen as poorly differentiated, with metastases.
The presence of basal membrane characterizes normal cells with apical polarity.
Dysplasia is characterized by a loss of uniformity in cell size and shape, called pleomorphism, loss of tissue orientation, and nuclear changes.
Dysplasia is often reversible.
Carcinoma in situ is a type of severe dysplasia. It affects the entire thickness of the epithelium and does not infiltrate the basement membrane. This makes it different from invasive carcinoma, which invades the basement membrane.
Carcinoma in situ is irreversible.
Carcinoma in situ affects the entire thickness of the epithelium and does not infiltrate the basement membrane.
Invasive carcinoma invaded the basement membrane. This makes it different from carcinoma in situ, which does not invade the basement membrane.
Invasive carcinoma has the ability to invade the basement membrane using collagenases and hydrolases (metalloproteinases).
The loss and inactivation of e-cadherin occur in invasive carcinoma, resulting in cell connection loss.
Metastasis is characterized by the ability of cancer cells to surpass the basement membrane and enter lymphatics or blood. It can spread to distant organs.
Picmonic's rapid review multiple-choice quiz allows you to assess your knowledge.
*Average video play time: 2-3 minutes
Unforgettable characters with concise but impactful videos (2-4 min each)