Ace Your Pediatrics Classes and Exams with Picmonic: #1 Visual Mnemonic Study Tool for Medical (MD/DO) Students

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Pediatrics | Medical (MD/DO) School Study Aid


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Nephrology & Urology
9 Picmonics to Learn | 20 mins

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Varicocele
Pathophysiology
Dilation of Pampiniform Plexus Veins
Signs and Symptoms
Soft Left-Sided Scrotal Mass
Bag of Worms
Increased Size with Standing or Valsalva
Decreased Size while Supine
Testicular Atrophy
Subfertility
Diagnosis
Ultrasound
Retrograde Venous Flow
Treatment
Surgical Gonadal Vein Ligation
Scrotal Support
3 mins
Hydrocele
Mechanism
Impaired Lymphatic Drainage
Signs and Symptoms
Large Scrotum
Painless
Considerations
Needle Aspiration or Surgery
Scrotal Support
Monitor for Bleeding and Infection
1 min
Wilms' Tumor (Nephroblastoma)
Cause
Malignant Renal Tumor
Assessment
Abdominal Mass
Hematuria
Fever
Hypertension
Interventions
Nephrectomy
Chemotherapy
Radiation
Considerations
Do Not Palpate Abdomen
Children Under 5 Years Old
2 mins
Minimal Change Disease
Pathophysiology
Nephrotic
Most Common in Children
May be Triggered by Recent Infection or Immune Stimulus
Diagnosis
On Electron Microscopy (EM) See Foot Process (Podocyte) Effacement
On Light Microscopy (LM) See Normal Glomeruli
Loss of Negative Charge
Selective Loss of Albumin
Treatment
Responds to Corticosteroids
2 mins
Berger's Disease (IgA Nephropathy)
Nephritic
IgA Nephropathy
Immune Complex Deposit in Mesangium
Increased Synthesis of IgA
Most Common Cause of Nephritic Syndrome
Overlapping Features with Henoch–Schönlein Purpura
Presents with Pharyngitis, URI or Acute Gastroenteritis
1 min
Henoch-Schonlein Purpura
Most Common Childhood Vasculitis
Follows Pharyngeal or Respiratory Infection
Palpable Purpura on Legs and Buttocks
Arthralgia
Intestinal Hemorrhage
Black Stool (Melena)
Associated with IgA Nephropathy
2 mins
Potter Sequence
PATHOGENESIS
Oligohydramnios
clinical findings
Limb Deformities
Facial Anomalies
Pulmonary Hypoplasia (Most Common Cause of Death)
Etiologies
Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease (ARPKD)
Posterior Urethral Valves
Chronic Placental Insufficiency
Bilateral Renal Agenesis
3 mins
Testicular Torsion
Characteristics
Sudden Twisting of Spermatic Cord 
Affects Neonates and Adolescents
Bell Clapper Deformity 
Clinical Features
Severe Acute Testicular Pain 
Abnormal Testicular Position 
Nausea and Vomiting
Diagnosis
Doppler Ultrasound of the Scrotum
Treatment
Emergent Surgical Intervention
Manual Detorsion
Considerations
Testicular Infarction
Infertility in Males
4 mins
EHEC (Enterohemorrhagic E. Coli)
Characteristics
O157:H7
Non-Sorbitol Fermenting
Hamburger Meat
Produces Shiga-Like Toxin
Gram-Negative
Lysogeny
Inactivates 60 S ribosome
Disease
Bloody Diarrhea
Hemolytic Anemia
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
Acute Renal Failure
Thrombocytopenia
2 mins

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