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Emergency Medicine | Medical (MD/DO) School Study Aid


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Other Topics in Emergency Medicine
28 Picmonics to Learn | 1 hr 1 min
Tension Pneumothorax
Mechanism
Air Enters Pleural Space, but Can't Exit
Trauma or Infection
Signs and Symptoms
Decreased Breath Sounds
Trachea Deviates Away from Affected Side
Chest Pain
Tachycardia
Tachypnea
Hypotension
Hypoxemia
Hyperresonance
Emergency
2 mins
Spontaneous Pneumothorax
Mechanism
Accumulation of Air in Pleural Space
Tall and Thin Young Males
Underlying Disease
Bleb or Bulla Rupture
Signs and Symptoms
Chest Pain
Hypoxemia
Decreased Breath Sounds
Hyperresonance
Shortness of Breath (SOB)
1 min
Spontaneous Abortion Overview
Assessment
Bleeding < 20 weeks Gestation
Interventions
Identify Type
Bed Rest
Monitor for Hemorrhage
Save Pads and Linens
RhoGAM
Dilation and Curettage (DandC)
Cerclage
Emotional Support
2 mins
Spontaneous Abortion Types
Missed Abortion
No Fetal Heartbeat, No Cervical Dilation, No Bleeding
Threatened Abortion
No Cervical Dilation and Minimal Bleeding
Inevitable Abortion
Bleeding and Cervical Dilation with No Loss of Products of Conception
Incomplete Abortion
Bleeding and Cervical Dilation with Loss of Some Products of Conception
Complete Abortion
Bleeding with No Cervical Dilation, with Loss of All Products of Conception
2 mins
Stages of Hypothermia
Mild
32 to 35°C (90 to 95°F)
Shivering
Moderate
28 to 32°C (82 to 90°F)
Obvious Motor Impairment
Slowed Thinking
Severe
< 28°C (< 82°F)
Shivering Stops
Paradoxical Undressing
Arrhythmias
3 mins
Hypothermia Interventions
Remove From Environment
Remove Wet Clothing
Passive Rewarming
Warm Clothing
Active Rewarming
Heated Blankets
Warm IV Solutions
Heated Oxygen
Warm Gastric Lavage
Considerations
Warm Trunk BEFORE Extremities
2 mins
Malignant Hyperthermia vs. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome vs. Serotonin Syndrome
Autonomic Instability
Muscle Rigidity
Malignant Hyperthermia
Ryanodine Receptor 1 Mutation
Inhaled Anesthetics
Succinylcholine
Dantrolene
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
Antidopaminergic Medications
Hyporeflexia
Myoglobinuria
Dantrolene
Serotonin Syndrome
Serotonergic Medications
Hyperreflexia
Clonus
Cyproheptadine
3 mins
Rabies Symptoms and Animals
Characteristics
Bats, Skunks, and Raccoons (Inside United States)
Dog Bites (Outside United States)
Fever
Agitation
Paralysis
Hydrophobia
Photophobia
Considerations
Fatal If Not Treated
1 min
Rabies Virus
Characteristics
Enveloped
RNA Virus
SS Negative Linear
Helical
Bullet-Shaped Envelope
Binds to Acetylcholine Receptor
Retrograde Fashion
Migrates to Saliva
Diagnosis
Negri Bodies
Cytoplasmic Inclusions in Neurons
Purkinje Cells of Cerebellum
2 mins
Pasteurella multocida
Bacteria Characteristics
Gram-Negative
Coccobacilli
Charcoal Yeast with Iron and Cysteine
Zoonotic - Cats and Dogs
Signs & Symptoms
Cellulitis
Osteomyelitis
Septic Arthritis
Treatment
Amoxicillin-clavulanate
Intravenous Antibiotics for Invasive Disease
2 mins
Clostridium tetani
Characteristics
Gram-Positive
Bacilli
Obligate Anaerobic
Exotoxin
Spore-Forming
Renshaw Cells in the Spinal Cord
Blocks Glycine and GABA Release
Signs and Symptoms
Spasms
Risus Sardonicus
Lockjaw
Opisthotonus
3 mins
Clostridium botulinum
Characteristics
Bacillus
Gram-Positive
Anaerobe
Spore-Forming
Heat Labile Toxin
Inhibits Acetylcholine (Ach) Release at Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ)
Canned Food in Adults
Spores in Honey
Signs and Symptoms
Descending Flaccid Paralysis
Diplopia
Ptosis
Floppy Baby
Constipation
2 mins
Reading a Chest X-Ray
ABCDE Approach
Airway and Appliances
Bones
Cardiac
Diaphragm
Everything Else
Masses
Pulmonary Vasculature
Lung Parenchyma
2 mins
Oxygen Delivery Methods
Nasal Cannula
Simple Face Mask
Non-Rebreather Mask
Venturi-Mask
Safety Precautions
Oxygen In Use Sign
No Electrical Sparks
Six Feet Away from Open Flames
Nursing Considerations
Dry Nasal and Upper Airway Mucosa
Skin Irritation
Home Education
1 min
Amniocentesis
Mechanism
Transabdominal Puncture
> 14 weeks gestation
Indications
Genetic and Congenital Anomalies
Fetal Hemolytic Disease
Fetal Lung Maturity
Complications
Miscarriage
Hemorrhage
Infection
Considerations
RhoGAM (Rh Immune Globulin)
2 mins
Chest Tubes: Management and Care
Confirm suction order
Assessment
Crepitus
Kinking
Shortness of Breath (SOB)
Infection
Excessive bubbling
Quick Interventions
If tube dislodges from patient, use petroleum gauze taped 3 ways
If drainage system is damaged, place disconnected drainage tube in sterile water
1 min
Wound Drainage Types and Devices
Drainage Types
Serous
Serosanguineous
Sanguineous
Purulent
Drainage Devices
T-tube
Penrose
Jackson-Pratt (JP)
Hemovac
Considerations
Record Drainage Amounts
Check Device Function
2 mins
Types of Wound Healing
Types of Wounds
Acute
Chronic
Healing Process
Primary Intention
Approximated Edges
Secondary Intention
Edges Not Approximated
Tertiary Intention
Delayed Closure due to Infection and Necrosis
2 mins
Stages of Burn Care
Phase / Stage 1
Resuscitative/Emergent Phase
Injury to Return of Capillary Permeability
48-72 hours
IV Fluid Replacement
Phase / Stage 2
Acute Phase
Diuresis to Near Wound Closure
Phase / Stage 3
Wound Closure to Return of Optimal Level
2 mins
IV Solutions
Hypotonic (< 280 mOsm/L)
1/4 Normal Saline (0.225% NaCl)
1/2 Normal Saline (0.45% NaCl)
Isotonic (280-300 mOsm)
Normal Saline (0.9% NaCl)
Lactated Ringer's (LR)
Dextrose 5% in Water (D5W)
Hypertonic (> 300 mOsm)
3% or 5% NaCl
Dextrose 5% in 0.45% NaCl
Dextrose 10% in Water (D10W)
3 mins
Blood Types
Allele A is Dominant
Allele B is Dominant
Allele O is Recessive
Genotypes AA and AO have Type A Blood
Genotypes BB and BO have Type B Blood
Genotype AB is co-dominant and has Type AB Blood
Genotype OO Results in Type O Blood
2 mins
Blood Types and Compatibilities
ABO Compatibility
No Antigens (Type O Blood)
Universal Donor
A Antigen (Type A Blood)
B Antigen (Type B Blood)
AB Antigen (Type AB Blood)
Universal Recipient
Rhesus (Rh) Compatibility
Rh (Rhesus) Antigen
Never Rh+ to Rh-
Considerations
Blood Transfusion
Obstetric Patient
2 mins
Types of Blood Products
Types
Whole Blood
Packed Red Blood Cells
Fresh Frozen Plasma
Immunoglobulins
Clotting Factors
Albumin
Platelets
Considerations
Use within 24 Hours
Washing Removes Antibodies
Irradiation Destroys WBCs
2 mins
Whole Blood Composition
Characteristics
Plasma
Electrolytes And Other Solutes
Proteins
Albumin
Fibrinogen
Globulins
Water
Formed Elements
Buffy Coat
White Blood Cells (WBC)
Platelets
Red Blood Cells (RBC)
2 mins
Esophageal Perforation
Etiologies
Iatrogenic
Inflammation
Trauma
Boerhaave Syndrome
Presentation
Retrosternal Pain
Subcutaneous Emphysema
Pneumomediastinum
Diagnostic Workup
Chest X-Ray
Esophagram
Computed Tomography
Management
ABCs (Airway, Breathing, Circulation)
Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics
Surgical Repair
4 mins
Teratogens
Medications
ACE-Inhibitors: Kidney Damage
Aminoglycosides: Ototoxicity
Lithium: Ebstein Anomaly
Folate Antagonists: Neural Tube Defects
Substance Abuse
Cocaine: Low Birth Weight
Cocaine: Placental Abruption
Other
Vitamin A Excess: Spontaneous Abortion
Vitamin A Excess: Cleft Palate
X-Rays: Intellectual Disability
4 mins
Malignant Hyperthermia
Inheritance
Autosomal-Dominant
Pathophysiology and causes
Ryanodine Receptor 1 Mutation
Inhaled Anesthetics
Succinylcholine
Symptoms
Autonomic Instability
Muscle Rigidity
Treatment
Dantrolene
2 mins
Lumbar Puncture
Indications
CSF Sample
CSF Pressure
Considerations
Empty Bladder
Side-lying Position
Between 3rd and 4th Lumbar Vertebrae
Number Tubes
Supine Position After Procedure
Contraindications
Increased ICP (Intracranial Pressure)
Infection at Puncture Site
2 mins

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