NEW LOWER PRICES - ACT FAST
Medicine (MD/DO)
/
USMLE Step 2
/
Neurology, Ophthalmology & Otology
/
Infectious Nervous System Disorders
/
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)

Master Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) with Picmonic for Medicine

With Picmonic, facts become pictures. We've taken what the science shows - image mnemonics work - but we've boosted the effectiveness by building and associating memorable characters, interesting audio stories, and built-in quizzing.

DOWNLOAD PDF
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)

Recommended Picmonics

picmonic thumbnail
Meningitis Assessment
picmonic thumbnail
Meningitis Interventions
picmonic thumbnail
Common Causes of Meningitis: Newborn (0-6 Months)
picmonic thumbnail
Mucor and Rhizopus
picmonic thumbnail
Naegleria Fowleri

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)

PML-license-plate
sesanch1
11 KEY FACTS
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Demyelination of CNS
Unraveling-myelin on CNS-brain

PML is a disease of the central nervous system that involves demyelination and is typically caused by the reactivation of the JC virus in immunosuppressed individuals.

Reactivation of JC Virus
JC-on-a-penny

PML is affiliated with the reactivation of those previously infected with the JC virus. The immunosuppressive state (e.g., HIV) of an individual triggers the reactivation of the virus, thereby allowing for the destruction of oligodendrocytes and, thus, the demyelination of the CNS.

CLINICAL FEATURES
Neurologic Deficits
Defective-neuron

PML can involve myriad symptoms, including neurological deficits (e.g., hemiplegia, ataxia, aphasia), seizures, vision changes, encephalopathy, and altered mental status. These symptoms can be slow in onset and progress over several weeks.

Seizure
Caesar

PML can involve various symptoms revolving around neurological deficits, seizures, vision changes, encephalopathy, and altered mental status. These symptoms can be slow in onset and progress over several weeks.

Vision Changes
Delta Eyes

PML can involve a myriad of symptoms, including neurological deficits (e.g., hemiplegia, ataxia, aphasia), seizures, vision changes (e.g., hemianopsia), encephalopathy, and altered mental status. These symptoms can be slow in onset and progress over several weeks.

Encephalopathy
Altered Brain

PML can involve a myriad of symptoms, including neurological deficits (e.g., hemiplegia, ataxia, aphasia), seizures, vision changes, and encephalopathy, which can lead to AMS and dementia. These symptoms can be slow in onset and progress over several weeks.

DIAGNOSIS
Brain MRI or CT
Brain M-R-eyes and Cat-scanner

The preferred method of diagnosis involves an MRI with and without the presence of gadolinium contrast. An MRI is more sensitive to white matter lesions, though a CT with contrast can also be ordered.

CD4 Count
CD (4) Fork-Helper T Cell

A CD4 count should be obtained in those with suspected PML in order to assess immunological and HIV status. In those with HIV, PML is usually in those with a CD4 < 200.

CSF Sample
Brain-Spine-Fluid Sampler

The diagnosis of PML can also involve a sampling of CSF, which can detect the JC virus via PCR. CSF, in combination with clinical and radiological findings, can also be sufficient for diagnosis.

TREATMENT
Supportive Care
Supportive IV Bags

PML treatment revolves around supportive care to address clinical symptoms. In those with HIV, ART should be started immediately. Unfortunately, despite treatment, PML has a high mortality rate with a median survival of less than one year.

ART Therapy
Graffiti Art

PML treatment revolves around supportive care to address clinical symptoms. In those with HIV, ART should be started immediately. Unfortunately, despite treatment, PML has a high mortality rate with a median survival of less than one year.

DOWNLOAD PDF

Take the Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) Quiz

Picmonic's rapid review multiple-choice quiz allows you to assess your knowledge.

It's worth every penny

Our Story Mnemonics Increase Mastery and Retention

Memorize facts with phonetic mnemonics

Unforgettable characters with concise but impactful videos (2-4 min each)

Memorize facts with phonetic mnemonics

Ace Your Medicine (MD/DO) Classes & Exams with Picmonic:

Over 1,860,000 students use Picmonic’s picture mnemonics to improve knowledge, retention, and exam performance.

Choose the #1 Medicine (MD/DO) student study app.

Picmonic for Medicine (MD/DO) covers information that is relevant to your entire Medicine (MD/DO) education. Whether you’re studying for your classes or getting ready to conquer the USMLE Step 1, USMLE Step 2 CK, COMLEX Level 1, or COMLEX Level 2, we’re here to help.

Works better than traditional Medicine (MD/DO) flashcards.

Research shows that students who use Picmonic see a 331% improvement in memory retention and a 50% improvement in test scores.