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Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems
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Cellular Metabolism

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Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems | MCAT School Study Aid

Cellular Metabolism
7 Picmonics to Learn | 21 mins
Glycolysis
Characteristics
Glucose
Hexokinase or Glucokinase
Glucose-6-phosphate
Fructose-6-phosphate
Phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1)
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
Aldolase
Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate
1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
3-phosphoglycerate
2-phosphoglycerate
Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
Pyruvate Kinase
Pyruvate
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
Acetyl-CoA
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4 mins
Fructose Metabolism
Liver Fructose Metabolism
Fructose
Fructokinase
Fructose-1-Phosphate
Aldolase B
DHAP
Glyceraldehyde
Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate
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2 mins
Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle)
Characteristics
Acetyl-CoA + Oxaloacetate
Citric Acid
Isocitric Acid
Produces NADH
Alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid
Produces NADH
Succinyl CoA
Produces GTP
Succinate
Produces FADH2
Fumarate
Uses Water
Malate
Produces NADH
Oxaloacetate
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4 mins
Urea Cycle
Mitochondria
N-Acetylglutamate
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase I
NH3 + CO2
Carbamoyl Phosphate
Ornithine Transcarbamylase
Citrulline
Cytosol
Aspartate
Argininosuccinate
Fumarate
Arginine
H2O to Urea
Ornithine
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3 mins
Lipid Metabolism and Ketogenesis
Lipid Metabolism
Acetyl-CoA
Biotin Cofactor
Malonyl-CoA
Fatty Acids
Triglycerides
Glycerol
DHAP
Acetoacetyl-CoA
HMG-CoA
HMG-CoA Reductase
Mevalonate
Cholesterol
Ketogenesis
Acetoacetate
Beta-Hydroxybutyrate
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4 mins
Energy Releasing Pathways: Accounting
Characteristics
Anaerobic Respiration
2 ATP
2 NADH
Aerobic Respiration
8 NADH
2 FADH2
2 ATP
Oxidative Phosphorylation
34 ATP
2 ATP Lost
36 Net Total ATP
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2 mins
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
Electron Transport Chain
Oxygen is Final Electron Acceptor
Proton Pump
Proton Motive Force
ATP Synthase
1 NADH 3 ATP
1 FADH2 2 ATP
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2 mins

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