Zachary-Trevor Shared "Fundamentals" - 31 Picmonics

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Fundamentals

Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG - Chronic)
Mechanism
Flow of Aqueous Humor Slowed
Signs and Symptoms
Slow Onset
No Pain
Tunnel Vision
IOP 22-32mm Hg
Considerations
Drug Therapy
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1 min
Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma (PACG - Acute)
Mechanism
Rapid Increase in IOP
Signs and Symptoms
Rapid Onset
Pain
Blurred Vision
Halos Around Lights
Nausea and Vomiting
IOP over 30 mm Hg
Considerations
Drug Therapy
Surgery
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1 min
Detached Retina
Assessment
Flashes of Light
Floaters
Curtain Like Shadow
Interventions
Eye Patch
Bed Rest
Surgical Emergency
Considerations
No Vigorous Activity
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2 mins
Cataract
Mechanism
Age-related
Assessment
No Pain
Cloudy Opaque Lens
Decreased Visual Acuity
Occurs Gradually
Treatment
Surgery
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1 min
Meniere's Disease
Mechanism
Excess Endolymph
Signs and Symptoms
Tinnitus
One-sided Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Vertigo
Nausea and Vomiting
Considerations
Meclizine (Antivert)
Low Salt Diet
Surgery
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2 mins
CN VIII
Vestibulocochlear Nerve
Sensory
Hearing
Balance
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54 secs
Otitis Media Interventions
Antipyretics
Analgesics
Antibiotics
Irrigation
Position on Affected Side
Myringotomy
Tympanostomy Tube
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2 mins
Otitis Media Assessment
Red or Bulging Tympanic Membrane
Ear Pain
Pulling at ear
Fever
Upper Respiratory Infection
Considerations
More Common in Young Children
Eustachian Tube Narrower
Conductive Hearing Loss
Smoking Increases Risk
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2 mins
Braden Scale
Characteristics
Sensory Perception
Moisture
Activity
Mobility
Nutrition
Friction and Shear
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2 mins
Use of Restraints
Use Guidelines
During Emergency
Protecting From Harm
For Limited Time
Considerations
Last Resort
May Further Agitation
Frequent Observation
Obtain Order Within 1 Hour
Quick-Release Tie
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2 mins
Care for the Visually Impaired
Assessment
Decreased Visual Acuity
Snellen Chart
Status of Corrective Lenses
Nursing Considerations
Sighted-Guide Technique
Communication
Safe Environment
Medications
Clock Technique for Food
Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
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1 min
Pressure Ulcers
Types
Stage 1 - Non-Blanchable Redness
Stage 2 - Partial Thickness
Stage 3 - Full Thickness Skin Loss
Stage 4 - Full Thickness Tissue Loss
Unstageable
Possible Deep Tissue Injury
Considerations
Skin Color Alterations
Remove Necrotic Tissue Before Staging
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2 mins
Immobility
Assessment
Mobility Continuum
Complications
Cardiovascular
Respiratory
Musculoskeletal
Integumentary
Gastrointestinal
Urinary
Considerations
Turn, Cough, Deep Breathe (TCDB)
Range of Motion (ROM)
Skin Care
Fluids
Balanced Diet
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2 mins
Standard Precautions
Hand Hygiene
Wash In / Wash Out
Alcohol-Based Hand Rub
Hand Washing
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Gown
Face Mask
Goggles/Face Shield
Gloves
Donning and Removing PPE
Discard Sharps in Puncture-Resistant Container
Cough Etiquette
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2 mins
Contact Precautions
Private Room
Wash In / Wash Out
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Gloves
Gown
Limit Time Patient Leaves Room
Leave Equipment In Room
Special Linen Handling
Same Pathogen, Same Room
History of Contact Isolation
Preventative Education
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2 mins
Droplet-Airborne Precautions
Private Room
Droplet
Droplets Larger than 5 Microns
Being Within 3 Feet of Patient
Surgical Mask with Face Shield
Type of Infection or Condition
Airborne
Airborne Infection Isolation Room (AIIR)
Droplets Smaller than 5 Microns
N95 Respirator
Type of Infection or Condition
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2 mins
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological Needs
Oxygen, Water, Nutrition
Body temperature, Elimination, Shelter, Sexual Expression
Safety and Security
Physical Safety
Physiological Safety
Love and Belonging
Affection and Companionship
Esteem
Self Respect and Respect for Others
Self Actualization
Fulfillment
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2 mins
Patient Position Overview
Position Techniques
Trochanter Roll
Trapeze Bar
Ankle-Foot Orthotic (AFO) Devices
Positions
Fowlers Position
Supine Position
Trendelenburg
Side-Lying Position
Prone Position
Sims' Position
Nursing Considerations
Reposition q2 Hours/Prevent Skin Breakdown
Confirm Body Alignment
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2 mins
Interventions for Impaired Skin Integrity
Assessment
Signs of Skin Breakdown
Pain
Redness
Decreased Skin Turgor
Bleeding
Bony Prominences
Intervention
Reposition Q2H
Pressure Relief
Maintain Clean and Dry Skin
Adequate Nutrition and Hydration
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2 mins
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Mechanism
Dry (nonexudative)
Wet (exudative)
Signs and Symptoms
Scotomas
Blurred, darkened vision
Loss of central vision
Distortion of vision
Considerations
Drug Therapy
Surgery
Low-vision assistive devices
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2 mins

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