Ali Shared "Worst Rated - 6.10.15" - 25 Picmonics

With Picmonic, facts become pictures. We've taken what the science shows - image mnemonics work - but we've boosted the effectiveness by building and associating memorable characters, interesting audio stories, and built-in quizzing. Whether you're studying for your classes or getting ready for a big exam, we're here to help.

Worst Rated - 6.10.15

Cyclophosphamide
Mechanism
Requires Bioactivation by Liver
Cross-links DNA
Guanine N7 Position
Indications
Autoimmune Disorders
Leukemia
Lymphoma
Solid Tumors
Side Effects
Myelosuppression
Hemorrhagic Cystitis
Prevent with Mesna
3 mins
Valproic Acid
Indications
First Line Tonic-Clonic Seizure Treatment
Bipolar Disorder
Migraine Prophylaxis
Mechanism of Action
Increases GABA Concentration
Blocks Voltage-Gated Na+ Channels
Side Effect
GI Distress
Contraindication
Contraindicated in Pregnancy
1 min
Class IV Antiarrhythmics (Ca2+ Channel Blockers)
Indications
SVT
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Mechanism of Action
Decrease Conduction Velocity
Increase PR Interval and ERP
Drugs
Verapamil
Diltiazem
Nimodipine
Side Effects
Cardiovascular
Constipation
2 mins
HIV CD4+ 100
Signs and Symptoms
Aspergillus fumigatus
Cryptococcus neoformans
Candida albicans (Esophagitis)
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) B-cell lymphoma
Toxoplasma gondii
Cryptosporidium
Bartonella henselae
5 mins
Foscarnet
Indications
CMV Retinitis
Acyclovir-resistant HSV
Mechanism
Does Not Require Activation (by Viral Kinase)
Inhibits Viral DNA Polymerase
Pyrophosphate Analog
Resistance through Mutated DNA Polymerase
Side Effects
Nephrotoxicity
Electrolyte Abnormalities
Hypokalemia
Hypocalcemia
Hypomagnesemia
2 mins
Pioglitazone (Thiazolidinediones)
-glitazones Suffix
Mechanism
Binds PPAR-Gamma
Decreases Insulin Resistance
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Weight Gain
Heart Failure
Myalgia
Hypoglycemia
Upper Respiratory Infection
Considerations
Increased Risk of Bladder Cancer
Increased Fracture Risk in Women
Monitor Liver Enzymes
2 mins
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Disease
Pathophysiology
Faulty Collagen Synthesis
Autosomal Dominant or Recessive
Various Severities
Signs and Symptoms
Hypermobile Joints
Hyperextensible Skin
Easy Bruising/Bleeding
Berry (Saccular) Aneurysm
Considerations
Beighton Criteria
2 mins
Budd-Chiari Syndrome
Causes
Pregnancy and Postpartum
Hematologic Disorders
Tumors
Chronic Infections
Mechanism
Thrombosis of Major Hepatic Veins
Centrilobular Congestion and Necrosis
Symptoms
Abdominal Pain
Ascites
Hepatomegaly
Nutmeg Liver
3 mins
Bruton's Agammaglobulinemia
Pathophysiology
X-linked Recessive
Defective Bruton Tyrosine Kinase
Blocks B Cell Maturation
Signs & Symptoms
Decreased Immunoglobulins of All Classes
Bacterial Infections After Six Months
Maternal IgG Protects Before Six Months
2 mins
Alkaptonuria
Autosomal Recessive
Deficiency of homogentisic acid oxidase
In degradative pathway of tyrosine to fumarate
Homogentisic acid harmful to cartilage
Arthritis
Dark Connective Tissue
Urine turns black on standing
1 min
Bernard-Soulier Syndrome
Mechanism
Autosomal Recessive
Deficiency of Glycoprotein Ib (GpIb) Receptor
Symptoms
Mucosal Membrane Bleeding
Menorrhagia
Easy Bruising
Labs
Large Platelets
Increased Bleeding Time
No Platelet Agglutination with Ristocetin
3 mins
Azoles (Ketoconazole)
"-azole" suffix
Indications
Local and Less Serious Systemic Mycosis
Mechanism
Inhibits Ergosterol Synthesis
Inhibits P450
Side Effects
Liver Dysfunction
Inhibition of Testosterone Synthesis
1 min
NNRTIs (Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors)
Indications
HIV
Mechanism
Do Not Require Intracellular Metabolism
Inhibits Reverse Transcriptase
Side Effects
Rash
Hepatotoxicity
Vivid Dreams and CNS Symptoms
Contraindication
Pregnancy
2 mins
Atypical Antipsychotics
Indications
Schizophrenia
Mechanism of Action
Unknown Mechanism
Side Effects
Seizures
Prolonged QT Interval
Agranulocytosis
Weight Gain
Fewer Extrapyramidal Side Effects
Fewer Anticholinergic Side Effects
2 mins
Orotic Aciduria
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Defect in UMP Synthase
De Novo Pyrimidine Synthesis Pathway
Symptoms
Increased Orotic Acid in Urine
Megaloblastic Anemia
No Response to B12 or Folate
Non-Hyperammonemic
Failure to Thrive
Treatment
Oral Uridine Monophosphate
2 mins
Glyburide and Glipizide (2nd Generation Sulfonylureas)
Mechanisms
2nd Generation Sulfonylureas
Blocks Potassium Channels in Beta Cells
Stimulate Release of Insulin
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Hypoglycemia
Considerations
More Potent
Beta Blockers Reduce Effects
Avoid Alcohol
Avoid Breastfeeding
2 mins
Hyper IgM Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Deficient CD40 Ligand on Helper T-cells
Defective CD40 Receptor on B-cells
Inability to Class Switch
Signs and Symptoms
Pyogenic Abscess
Decreased IgG, IgA, IgE
4 mins
Amphotericin B Side Effects & Toxicity
Side Effects
Fever/Chills "Shake and Bake"
Nephrotoxicity
Milder with Liposomes
Hypotension
Anemia
IV Phlebitis
Arrhythmias
1 min
Antimuscarinic Antidote
Antidote
Physostigmine Salicylate
44 secs
HIV CD4+ 200
Signs and Symptoms
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
JC Virus
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)
Pneumocystis Pneumonia
(HIV) Dementia
Histoplasmosis
3 mins

Ace Your Medicine (MD/DO) Classes & Exams with Picmonic:

Over 1,090,000 students use Picmonic’s picture mnemonics to improve knowledge, retention, and exam performance.

Choose the #1 Medicine (MD/DO) student study app.

Picmonic for Medicine (MD/DO) covers information that is relevant to your entire Medicine (MD/DO) education. Whether you’re studying for your classes or getting ready to conquer the USMLE Step 1, USMLE Step 2 CK, COMLEX Level 1, or COMLEX Level 2, we’re here to help.

Works better than traditional Medicine (MD/DO) flashcards.

Research shows that students who use Picmonic see a 331% improvement in memory retention and a 50% improvement in test scores.

It's worth every penny