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Carries O2 to tissues and CO2 to lungs.
Anucleate and lacks organelles; biconcave (image) , with large surface area-to-volume ratio for rapid gas exchange.
Life span of 120 days.
Source of energy is glucose (90% used in glycolysis, 10% used in HMP shunt).
Membrane contains Cl−/HCO3 − antiporter, which allows RBCs to export HCO3 − and transport CO2 from the periphery to the lungs for elimination.
Spectrin is the cytoskeletal protein that gives the erythrocyte its shape
Functions as link between innate and adaptive immune systems
Expresses MHC class II and Fc receptors on surface
Called Langerhans cell in the skin.
Refers to B cells, T cells, and NK cells
B cells and T cells mediate adaptive immunity
NK cells are part of the innate immune response
Round, densely staining nucleus with small amount of pale cytoplasm (image)
Lymphocytes are highly sensitive to radiation; lymphopenia is the earliest change to emerge after whole body radiation
Part of humoral immune response.
Originates from stem cells in bone marrow and matures in marrow.
Migrates to peripheral lymphoid tissue (follicles of lymph nodes, white pulp of spleen, unencapsulated lymphoid tissue).
Undergo immunoglobulin rearrangements to become naive B cells that express surface IgM and IgD.
When an antigen binds to surface IgM or IgD, B cells differentiate into plasma cells (which produce antibodies IgM or IgD) and memory cells.
Can function as an APC to CD4+ helper T cells via MHC II
CD40 receptor on B cell binds CD40L on helper T cell, providing 2nd activation signal.
Helper T cell then secretes IL-4 and IL-5 (mediate B-cell isotype switching, hypermutation, and maturation to plasma cells).
Mediates cellular immune response.
Originates from stem cells in the bone marrow, but matures in the thymus.
T cells use TCR complex (TCR and CD3) for antigen surveillance
T cells differentiate into cytotoxic T cells (express CD8, recognize MHC I), helper T cells (express CD4, recognize MHC II), and regulatory T cells.
CD28 (costimulatory signal) necessary for T-cell activation. B7 on APC binds CD28 on CD4+ helper T cells providing 2nd activation signal
Activated CD4+ helper T cells secrete cytokines that "help" inflammation and are divided into two subsets.
Th1 subset secretes IL-2 (T cell growth factor and CD8+ T cell activator), IFN-y (macrophage activator) and IL-12 (Induces differentiation of T cells into Th1 cells.)
Th2 subset secretes IL-4 (facilitates B-cell class switching to IgG and IgE), IL-5 (eosinophil chemotaxis and activation, maturation of B cells to plasma cells, and class switching to IgA), and IL-10 (inhibits Th1 phenotype).
The majority of circulating lymphocytes are T cells (80%).
CD4+ helper T cells are the primary target of HIV.
Helper T cell secretes TGF-β, IL-6 and differentiates into Th17
TGF-β helps differentiate helper T cells into Treg (T cell regulator cells)
IL-4, IL-10 inhibit Th1 differentiation
IFN-γ inhibits differentiation into Th2
Produces large amounts of antibody specific to a particular antigen
“Clock-face” chromatin distribution and eccentric nucleus
Well-developed Golgi apparatus
Found in bone marrow and normally do not circulate in peripheral blood
Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell cancer
18 weeks to adult
Embryonic globins: ζ and ε.
Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) = α2γ2
Adult hemoglobin (HbA1) = α2β2
HbF has higher affinity for O2 due to less avid binding of 2,3-BPG, allowing HbF to extract O2 from maternal hemoglobin (HbA1 and HbA2) across the placenta.
HbA2 (α2δ2) is a form of adult hemoglobin present in small amounts.
Blood Types and Compatibilities
No Antigens (Type O Blood)
A Antigen (Type A Blood)
B Antigen (Type B Blood)
AB Antigen (Type AB Blood)
Rhesus (Rh) Compatibility
Rh (Rhesus) Antigen
Never Rh+ to Rh-
Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn
IgM does not cross placenta; IgG does cross placenta.
Rh⊝ mothers exposed to fetal Rh⊕ blood (often during delivery) may make anti-D IgG.
In subsequent pregnancies, anti-D IgG crosses the placenta leading to hemolytic disease of the newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis) in the next fetus that is Rh⊕.
Administration of anti-D IgG (RhoGAM) to Rh⊝ pregnant women during third trimester and early postpartum period prevents maternal anti-D IgG production.
Rh⊝ mothers have anti-D IgG only if previously exposed to Rh⊕ blood.
ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn
Usually occurs in a type O mother with a type A or B fetus.
Can occur in a first pregnancy as maternal anti-A and/or anti-B IgG antibodies may be formed prior to pregnancy
Does not worsen with future pregnancies.
Presents as mild jaundice in the neonate within 24 hours of birth
Treatment is phototherapy or exchange transfusion
On a gel, hemoglobin migrates from the negatively charged cathode to the positively charged anode.
HbA migrates the farthest, followed by HbF, HbS, and HbC.
This is because the missense mutations in HbS and HbC replace glutamic acid ⊝ with valine (neutral) and lysine ⊕, respectively, impacting the net protein charge.
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