Kathryn Shared "Test 1: 450" - 43 Picmonics

With Picmonic, facts become pictures. We've taken what the science shows - image mnemonics work - but we've boosted the effectiveness by building and associating memorable characters, interesting audio stories, and built-in quizzing. Whether you're studying for your classes or getting ready for a big exam, we're here to help.

Test 1: 450

Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Deficit of 3 Social Communication Skills
Deficit of Social/Emotional Reciprocity
Deficit of Nonverbal Communication
Deficit of Social Relationships
Presence of Repetitive Behaviors
Repetitive Motions, Speech
Excessive Adherence to Routine
Fixed Interests
Hypo/Hypereaction to Sensory Input
Hereditary
No Eye Contact
Failure to develop a social smile
Use of Parent's Hand
IQ - predictor
picmonic thumbnail
Delirium
Mechanism
Rapid Onset
Reversible
Assessment
Hallucinations
Decline in Cognition
Short Attention Span
Rapid Speech
Change in Activity Level
Mood Swings
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Delirium Management
Etiology
Medications
Abuse Withdrawal
Metabolic
Infections
Investigations
Complete Blood Count (CBC)
Electrolyte Abnormalities
Glucose
Renal Disorders
Thyroid
Urine Analysis
Toxicology
AST/ALT Ratio
Chest X-Ray
Management
Treat Underlying Cause
Safe Environment
Reassure Patient with Anxiety
Antipsychotics
Avoid Benzo
picmonic thumbnail
Delerium and Dementia
Delerium
Waxing and waning consciousness
Hallucinations (often visual)
Cognitive Dysfunction
Disturbance in sleep-wake cycle
Secondary to other illness
Abnormal EEG
Dementia: Impairment in one or more cognitive domains
Normal LOC
Normal EEG
Dementia can be secondary to hypothyroidism, B12 deficiency
1) Complex attention
2) Executive Function (planning, decision making)
3) Learning/Memory
4) Language
5) Perceptual-motor ability
6) Social cognition
picmonic thumbnail
Alcohol and benzodiazepines withdrawl
examination
Seizures
Tachycardia
Palpitations
symptoms
benzodiazepines
Tremors
Anxiety
Perceptual Distortion
Psychosis
Insomnia
alcohol
Delirium
picmonic thumbnail
Delirium Risks and Causes
Older Adult
Malnutrition
Sleep Deprivation
Dementia
Anticholinergics
Opioids
Benzodiazepines
Constipation
Haloperidol (Haldol)
Atypical Antipsychotics
Reverse Weekdays Test
Active Infection
picmonic thumbnail
Signs of Inflammation
Heat
Redness
Swelling
Pain
Loss of Function
Chronic Inflammation
Neutrophils in Acute Inflammation
Macrophages, lymphocyes, plasma cells - chronic phase
Tissue Injury
Return To Normal: 2-3 Days
Edema
picmonic thumbnail
Triggers of Acute Inflammation
Infection
Trauma
Tissue Necrosis
Immune Reactions
Foreign Body
picmonic thumbnail
Acute Pancreatitis Assessment
Mechanism
Heavy Alcohol Use and Gallstones
Signs and Symptoms
Abdominal Pain
Nausea/Vomiting/Anorexia
Abdominal Rigidity/Guarding
Decreased or Absent Bowel Sounds
Hypotension and Tachycardia
Jaundice
Increased White Blood Cells
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Acute Pancreatitis Interventions
NPO with NG Tube to Suction
Pain Management
Albumin
Lactated Ringers Solution
Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI)
Antibiotics
Surgery
Nutrition
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Treatment of Chronic Pancreatitis
Nonoperative
NPO
H2 Blockers and Pancreatic enzymes together
Narcotic analgesics
Insulin
Operative
Pancreaticojejunostomy/whipple
picmonic thumbnail
Acute Pancreatitis Causes
"GET SMASHHED" Mnemonic
Gallstones
(Ethanol) Alcohol
Trauma
Steroids
Mumps
Autoimmune
Scorpion Sting
Hypercalcemia
Hypertriglyceridemia > 1000
ERCP
Drugs
picmonic thumbnail
1 min
severe pancreatitis
Cullen Sign
Grey-Turner sign
Risk Factors
Age 75 + (+2)
Obesity
Alcoholism
C-reactive protein >150 mg/dl at 48 hours after presentat1on
incr BUN
pulmonary infiltrates or pleural effusion
picmonic thumbnail
Pancreas
Characteristics
Acinar Cells Release Digestive Enzymes
Ductal Epithelial Cells Release Bicarbonate
Islets of Langerhans
Beta Cells Release Insulin
Alpha Cells Release Glucagon
Delta Cells Release Somatostatin
Somatostatin Inhibits Alpha and Beta Cells
picmonic thumbnail
3 mins
Pancreatic secretions
Isotonic fluid
Low flow → high Cl−
High flow → high HCO3 −
α-amylase
Starch digestion
Secreted in active form
Lipases
Fat digestion
Proteases
Protein digestion
Includes trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, carboxypeptidases
Secreted as proenzymes also known as zymogens
Trypsinogen
Converted to active enzyme trypsin, leading to activation of other proenzymes and cleaving of additional trypsinogen molecules into active trypsin (positive feedback loop)
Converted to trypsin by enterokinase/ enteropeptidase, a brush-border enzyme on duodenal and jejunal mucosa
nucleases
Pancreatic Nucleases breakdown DNA/RNA
picmonic thumbnail
Biliary structures
Gallstones (filling defects, red arrows in A ) that reach the confluence of the common bile and pancreatic ducts at the ampulla of Vater can block both the common bile and pancreatic ducts (double duct sign), causing both cholangitis and pancreatitis, res
Tumors that arise in head of pancreas (usually ductal adenocarcinoma) can cause obstruction of common bile duct Ž painless jaundice.
picmonic thumbnail
Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis
Diagnostic Workup
Lipase is preferred test
CT scan if lipase inconclusive but still suspect pancreatitis
Ultrasound or ERCP to look for gall stones
Order LFTs
Determine Ranson Criteria
Treatment
Nasojejunal (J tube) NOT TPN
IV Fluids (LRS)
Analgesics
Avoid narcotics
Complications
Pancreatic Pseudocyst
CT to diagnose
Drain if over 6cm AND 6 weeks old
Infection
CT and biopsy
Empiric meropenem
ARDS
Shock (due to leaky capillaries)
Antibiotics IF cultures positive, NO PPX
picmonic thumbnail
Duodenum
Covered by Brush Border Enzymes
Cholecystokinin
SOURCE: I cells (duodenum, jejunum)
ACTION: Increase pancreatic secretion
Increase gallbladder contraction
Decreases gastric emptying
Increases sphincter of Oddi relaxation
REGULATION: Increased by fatty acids and amino acids
Acts on neural muscarinic pathways to cause pancreatic secretion.
Secretin
SOURCE: S cells (duodenum)
ACTION: Increases pancreatic HCO3 – secretion
Decreases gastric acid secretion
Increases bile secretion
REGULATION: Increased by acid, fatty acids in lumen of duodenum
Increased HCO3 – neutralizes gastric acid in duodenum, allowing pancreatic enzymes to function.
Glucosedependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)
SOURCE: K cells (duodenum, jejunum)
ACTION: Exocrine: Decreases gastric H+ secretion
Endocrine: increases insulin release
REGULATION: Increased by fatty acids, amino acids, oral glucose
BICARBONATE
SOURCE: Mucosal Cells and Brunner Glands
picmonic thumbnail
Dementia
Alzheimer's Dementia (neurofibrillary tangles: hyperphosphorylated intracellular tay protein)
Pick's Disease (frontotemporal dementia + atrophy): aphasia + personality changes + parkinsonian features + spherical tau protein
Lewy Body Dementia (dementia + visual hallucinations --> parkinsonian features)
Prion Disease (spongiform cortex + myoclonus + rapidly progressive dementia)
picmonic thumbnail
Dementia
Reversible Causes
B12 Deficiency
Syphilis
Do RPR
Subdural Hematoma
CT
Hypothyroidism
Cirrhosis
Do LFTs
Depression (pseudodementia)
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
CT
Symptoms improve with lumbar puncture
Irreversible Causes
Alzheimer's
Pick's Disease
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
Lewy Body Dementia
Vascular Dementia
Step-wise decrease in function
CT
picmonic thumbnail

Ace Your Registered Nurse (RN) Classes & Exams with Picmonic:

Over 1,170,000 students use Picmonic’s picture mnemonics to improve knowledge, retention, and exam performance.

Choose the #1 Registered Nurse (RN) student study app.

Picmonic for Registered Nurse (RN) covers information that is relevant to your entire Registered Nurse (RN) education. Whether you’re studying for your classes or getting ready to conquer your NCLEX®-RN, Hesi, ATI, TEAS test, Kaplan exams, we’re here to help.

Works better than traditional Registered Nurse (RN) flashcards.

Research shows that students who use Picmonic see a 331% improvement in memory retention and a 50% improvement in test scores.

It's worth every penny