Kendall Shared "Long Audios" - 23 Picmonics

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Long Audios

Membranous Glomerulonephritis
Characteristics
Nephrotic
Diagnosis
LM Thickening of Capillary and Glomerular Basement Membrane (GBM)
EM Spike and Dome Appearance with Subepithelial Deposits
IF Granular
Primary
Phospholipase A2 Receptor Autoantibodies
Secondary
NSAIDS
Gold
Solid Tumors
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)
Lupus
3 mins
Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis
Nephritic
Crescent Shape
Crescents Consist of Fibrin and C3b
With Macrophages
Goodpasture's Syndrome
Wegener's Granulomatosis
Microscopic Polyangiitis
Poor Prognosis
2 mins
Post Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis
Pathophysiology
Nephritic
Children
Signs and Symptoms
Edema
Cola Colored Urine
Follows Group A Streptococcal pharyngitis or Skin Infection
Diagnosis
Neutrophils
Immunofluorescence (IF) Granular
Lumpy Bumpy Appearance on Immunofluorescence (IF)
Subepithelial Immune Complex Humps
2 mins
Amyloidosis
Primary
Multiple myeloma
Secondary
Tuberculosis (TB)
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Congo red stain
Apple green birefringence
Nephrotic
2 mins
Berger's Disease (IgA Nephropathy)
Nephritic
IgA Nephropathy
Immune Complex Deposit in Mesangium
Increased Synthesis of IgA
Most Common Cause of Nephritic Syndrome
Overlapping Features with Henoch–Schönlein Purpura
Presents with Pharyngitis, URI or Acute Gastroenteritis
1 min
Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis
Nephritic-Nephrotic Syndrome
Type I
Subendothelial Immune Complexes
Hepatitis C Virus
Granular IF
Tram Tracks Caused by Splitting of the GBM
Ingrowth of Mesangium
Type II
Dense Deposit Disease
C3 Nephritic Factor
2 mins
HIV CD4+ 200
Signs and Symptoms
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
JC Virus
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)
Pneumocystis Pneumonia
(HIV) Dementia
Histoplasmosis
3 mins
Blood Types and Compatibilities
ABO Compatibility
No Antigens (Type O Blood)
Universal Donor
A Antigen (Type A Blood)
B Antigen (Type B Blood)
AB Antigen (Type AB Blood)
Universal Recipient
Rhesus (Rh) Compatibility
Rh (Rhesus) Antigen
Never Rh+ to Rh-
Considerations
Blood Transfusion
Obstetric Patient
2 mins
Types of Blood Products
Types
Whole Blood
Packed Red Blood Cells
Fresh Frozen Plasma
Immunoglobulins
Clotting Factors
Albumin
Platelets
Considerations
Use within 24 Hours
Washing Removes Antibodies
Irradiation Destroys WBCs
2 mins
Blood Transfusion Administration
Proper Patient Identification
Large Bore Needle
Y Tubing
Baseline Vital Signs
Slow IV Infusion
Monitor During First 15 Minutes or 50 mL of Blood
Monitor for Reactions
Considerations
Do Not Add Anything To Same IV Line
No Dextrose or Lactated Ringers
Jehovah's Witnesses, No Transfusions
3 mins
IV Solutions
Hypotonic (< 280 mOsm/L)
1/4 Normal Saline (0.225% NaCl)
1/2 Normal Saline (0.45% NaCl)
Isotonic (280-300 mOsm)
Normal Saline (0.9% NaCl)
Lactated Ringer's (LR)
Dextrose 5% in Water (D5W)
Hypertonic (> 300 mOsm)
3% or 5% NaCl
Dextrose 5% in 0.45% NaCl
Dextrose 10% in Water (D10W)
3 mins
Types of Shock
Hypovolemic
Depleted Volume
Cardiogenic
Pump Failure
Obstructive
Indirect Pump Failure
Distributive
Lost Vascular Tone
Neurogenic
Anaphylactic
Septic
2 mins
Muscle Types
Characteristics
Skeletal Muscle
Somatic Nervous System
Striated
Multinucleate
Cardiac Muscle
Autonomic Nervous System
Myogenic
Gap Junctions
Uninucleate
Smooth Muscle
2 mins
Skeletal Muscle Contraction Initiation
Somatic Motor Neuron Releases Acetylcholine
Acetylcholine Causes Sodium Influx
Cell Reaches All-or-Nothing Threshold
Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels Open
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Causes Calcium Flood
Calcium Flood Enters Myofibrils
1 min
Skeletal Muscle Contraction Action
Characteristics
Calcium Binds Troponin
Active Site Exposed
Many Mitochondria Produce ATP
Myosin Head Binds
Power Stroke
Myosin Head Releases Active Site
ATP Consumed
1 min
Macroscopic Bone Structure
Characteristics
Compact Bone
Yellow Bone Marrow
Spongy Bone
Red Bone Marrow
Long Bone
Epiphysis
Epiphyseal Plate
Diaphysis
Metaphysis
Periosteum
2 mins
Types of Fractures
Nondisplaced
Displaced
Incomplete
Complete
Closed
Open
Direction of Fracture Line
2 mins
Coccidioidomycosis
Characteristics
Fungi
Dimorphic
Southwest
After earthquakes
Spherule
20-60 um
Signs and Symptoms
Pneumonia
Meningitis
Bone Infection
Skin infections
Erythema Nodosum
Granulomatous Inflammation
Caseous Necrosis
2 mins
Paracoccidioido-mycosis
Fungi
Latin America
Common in Brazil
Budding yeast with captain wheel formation
40-50 um
Pneumonia
39 secs
Histoplasmosis
Fungi
2-5 um
Yeast cells within macrophages
Starling Bird Poop
Bat poop
Caves
Mississippi and Ohio river valley
Pneumonia
Caseating granuloma
Erythema Nodosum
1 min

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