Anthony Shared "PathII-Kidney" - 43 Picmonics

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PathII-Kidney

Nephrotic Syndrome
Signs and Symptoms
Massive Proteinuria > 3.5g per Day
Edema
Increased risk of infection
Thromboembolism
Hyperlipidemia
Fatty casts
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Minimal Change Disease
Pathophysiology
Nephrotic
Most Common in Children
May be Triggered by Recent Infection or Immune Stimulus
Diagnosis
On Electron Microscopy (EM) See Foot Process (Podocyte) Effacement
On Light Microscopy (LM) See Normal Glomeruli
Loss of Negative Charge
Selective Loss of Albumin
Treatment
Responds to Corticosteroids
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Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
Most Common Cause of Nephrotic Syndrome in Hispanics and African Americans
Associated with Sickle Cell Disease and HIV
Associated Interferon Therapy and Heroin Abuse
Histopathology
LM Segmental Sclerosis and Hyalinosis
EM Focal Damage of Visceral Epithelial Cells
IF Negative
Signs & Symptoms
Microscopic Hematuria
Nonselective Proteinuria
Considerations
Poor Prognosis
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Membranous Glomerulonephritis
Characteristics
Nephrotic
Diagnosis
LM Thickening of Capillary and Glomerular Basement Membrane (GBM)
EM Spike and Dome Appearance with Subepithelial Deposits
IF Granular
Primary
Phospholipase A2 Receptor Autoantibodies
Secondary
NSAIDS
Gold
Solid Tumors
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)
Lupus
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3 mins
Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis
Nephritic-Nephrotic Syndrome
Type I
Subendothelial Immune Complexes
Hepatitis C Virus
Granular IF
Tram Tracks Caused by Splitting of the GBM
Ingrowth of Mesangium
Type II
Dense Deposit Disease
C3 Nephritic Factor
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Diabetic Glomerulonephropathy
Pathophysiology
Nonenzymatic Glycosylation of Glomerular Basement Membrane
Nonenzymatic Glycosylation of Arterioles
Hyperfiltration
Increased GFR
Histological Findings
Hyaline Arteriolosclerosis
Mesangial Expansion
Type IV Collagen Deposition
Kimmelstiel Wilson Lesions
Presentation
Nephrotic
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Amyloidosis
Primary
Multiple Myeloma
Secondary
Tuberculosis (TB)
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Congo Red Stain
Apple Green Birefringence
Nephrotic
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Nephritic Syndrome
Inflammatory
Hematuria
RBC casts
Increased Nitrogen in blood
Oliguria
Hypertension
Proteinuria < 3.5 grams per day
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Alport Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Nephritic
X-linked
Mutation in Type IV Collagen
Diagnosis
Split Basement Membrane
Basket Weave Appearance
Signs and Symptoms
Ocular Disorders
Deafness
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Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome)
Pathophysiology
Granulomatous Vasculitis
Signs and Symptoms
Sinusitis
Skin Lesions
Peripheral Neuropathy
Asthma
GI Disease
Heart Disease
Kidney Failure
Diagnosis
Eosinophilia
p-ANCA
Treatment
Corticosteroids
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Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis
Nephritic
Crescent Shape
Crescents Consist of Fibrin and C3b
With Macrophages
Goodpasture's Syndrome
Wegener's Granulomatosis
Microscopic Polyangiitis
Poor Prognosis
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Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Wegeners) Symptoms
Signs and Symptoms
Lung Involvement
Cough
Hemoptysis
Chronic Sinusitis
Saddle Nose
Perforation of Nasal Septum
Otitis Media
Glomerulonephritis
Hematuria
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Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Wegeners) Characteristics
Pathophysiology
Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis
Vasculitis
Necrotizing
C ANCA
Lungs And Upper Airway
Crescentic Glomerulonephritis
Treatment
Cyclophosphamide
Corticosteroids
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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Mechanism, Treatment and Complications
Mechanism and Characteristics
Systemic Autoimmune Disease
9:1 female to male ratio
Treatment
Glucocorticoids
NSAIDS
Hydroxychloroquine
Cyclophosphamide
Complications
Lupus nephritis
Libman-Sacks Endocarditis
Secondary Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome
Other
Drug-induced lupus
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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Diagnosis and Clinical Features
IM DAMN SHARP acronym
Immunoglobulins
Malar rash
Discoid rash
Antinuclear antibody
Mucositis
Neurologic disorders
Serositis
Hematologic disorders
Arthritis
Renal disorders
Photosensitivity
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Henoch-Schonlein Purpura
Most Common Childhood Vasculitis
Follows Pharyngeal or Respiratory Infection
Palpable Purpura on Legs and Buttocks
Arthralgia
Intestinal Hemorrhage
Black Stool (Melena)
Associated with IgA Nephropathy
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Berger's Disease (IgA Nephropathy)
Nephritic
IgA Nephropathy
Immune Complex Deposit in Mesangium
Increased Synthesis of IgA
Most Common Cause of Nephritic Syndrome
Overlapping Features with Henoch–Schönlein Purpura
Presents with Pharyngitis, URI or Acute Gastroenteritis
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Post Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis
Pathophysiology
Nephritic
Children
Signs and Symptoms
Edema
Cola Colored Urine
Follows Group A Streptococcal pharyngitis or Skin Infection
Diagnosis
Neutrophils
Immunofluorescence (IF) Granular
Lumpy Bumpy Appearance on Immunofluorescence (IF)
Subepithelial Immune Complex Humps
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Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
Pathophysiology
Chromosome 3
Presentation
Hemangioblastomas
Medulla, Retina, Cerebellum
Cysts
Kidney, Liver, Pancreas
Develop Bilateral Renal Carcinomas
Pheochromocytomas
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Tuberous Sclerosis
Characteristics
Autosomal Dominant
Signs and Symptoms
Hamartomas in CNS and Skin
Phakoma
Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
Seizures
Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma
Adenoma Sebaceum
Shagreen Patch
Ash-leaf Spots
Renal Angiomyolipoma
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma
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