Adeste Shared "GER Exam 1" - 35 Picmonics

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GER Exam 1

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Assessment
Pathophysiology
Relaxed Lower Esophageal Sphincter
Signs and Symptoms
Dyspepsia (Indigestion)
Belching
Nighttime Coughing
Dysphagia
Epigastric Pain
Regurgitation
Heartburn (Pyrosis)
Globus
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2 mins
Achalasia
Pathophysiology
Failure to Relax Lower Esophageal Sphincter
Malignancies
Chagas Disease
Loss of Auerbach Plexus
Symptoms
Dysphagia to Solids & Liquids
Diagnosis
Barium Swallow
Bird's Beak Appearance
Manometry
Risk Factors
Increased Risk Squamous Cell Carcinoma
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2 mins
Barrett's Esophagus
Histological findings
Metaplasia in Lower Esophagus
Columnar Epithelium
Associated Pathologies
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Esophagitis
Esophageal Ulcers
Increased Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma
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1 min
Acute Abdomen Differential Diagnosis: Upper Quadrants
Right Upper Quadrant
Cholecystitis
Biliary Colic
Cholangitis
Perforated Duodenal Ulcer
Acute Hepatitis
Left Upper Quadrant
Splenic Rupture
IBS (Splenic Flexure Syndrome)
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2 mins
Acute Abdomen Differential Diagnosis: Midepigastrium and Diffuse
Midepigastrium
Peptic Ulcer Disease
Pancreatitis
Aortic Dissection
Myocardial Infarction
Any Place
Peritonitis
Hemorrhage or Perforation
Bowel Obstruction
Strangulation
Acute Hepatitis
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2 mins
Acute Abdomen Differential Diagnosis: Lower Quadrants
Right Lower Quadrant
Appendicitis
Salpingitis
Left Lower Quadrant
Sigmoid Volvulus
Sigmoid Diverticulitis
Lower Quadrant (Both/Either)
Ectopic Pregnancy
Ovarian Torsion
Renal Calculi
Pyelonephritis
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2 mins
Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis Assessment
Diverticulosis
Outpouching
Diverticulitis
Inflamed Diverticula
Assessment
Abdominal Pain
Abdominal Distention
Flatulence
Fever
Rectal Bleeding
Alternating Constipation and Diarrhea
Considerations
Peritonitis
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2 mins
Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis Interventions
Interventions
High Fiber Diet
Reduce Intra-abdominal Pressure
Stool Softeners
Exercise
Anticholinergics
Considerations
Antibiotics
Bowel Resection
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2 mins
Mallory-Weiss
Characteristics
Bleeding From Tears in Mucosa
Forceful Vomiting
Alcoholism
Eating Disorders (Bulimia)
Painful Hematemesis
Diagnosis
Endoscopy
Management
Observation
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2 mins
Pathways through the Diaphragm
Characteristics
T8 Level (Caval opening)
Inferior Vena Cava
T10 Level (Esophageal Opening)
Esophagus
Vagus Nerve
Esophageal Branches Left Gastric Vessels
T12 Level (Aortic opening)
Aorta
Thoracic Duct
Azygos Vein
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2 mins
Dermatomes - Lumbosacral
L2 - Medial Thigh
L3 - Medial Knee
L4 - Kneecap, Medial Ankle and Big Toe
L5 - Dorsum of Foot
S1 - Lateral Foot, Posteriolateral Thigh
S 2, 3, 4, 5 - Perianal and Genitals
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2 mins
Acute Pancreatitis Disease
Autodigestion of Pancreas by Pancreatic Enzymes
Symptoms
Epigastric Abdominal Pain Radiating to Back
Anorexia
Nausea
Labs
Increased Amylase and Lipase
Complications
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
Infection
Hypocalcemia
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
Pancreatic Pseudocyst
Hemorrhage
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3 mins
Acute Pancreatitis Interventions
NPO with NG Tube to Suction
Pain Management
Albumin
Lactated Ringers Solution
Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI)
Antibiotics
Surgery
Nutrition
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2 mins
Peptic Ulcer Disease Interventions
Combination Drug Therapy
Two Antibiotics
Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI)
Decrease Acid Secretion
Avoid NSAIDs
Diet and Lifestyle Changes
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1 min
Peptic Ulcer Disease Assessment
Mechanism/Cause
Helicobacter Pylori
Increased Stomach Acid
Assessment
Abdominal Pain
Heartburn (Pyrosis)
Melena
Weight Changes
GI Distress
Considerations
Most Commonly in Duodenum
Duodenal: Pain Relieved by Eating
Gastric: Pain Caused by Eating
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2 mins
Acute Pancreatitis Assessment
Mechanism
Heavy Alcohol Use and Gallstones
Signs and Symptoms
Abdominal Pain
Nausea/Vomiting/Anorexia
Abdominal Rigidity/Guarding
Decreased or Absent Bowel Sounds
Hypotension and Tachycardia
Jaundice
Increased White Blood Cells
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2 mins
Macrocytic Anemia Causes
MCV > 100
Megaloblastic
B12 Deficiency
Folate Deficiency
Orotic Aciduria
Non Megaloblastic
Alcoholism
Liver Disease
Reticulocytosis
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2 mins
Primary Biliary Cholangitis (Primary Biliary Cirrhosis)
Mechanism
Autoimmune Destruction of Bile Ducts
Intrahepatic
Cholestasis
Occurs in Middle-Aged Females
Signs and Symptoms
Fatigue
Pruritus
Skin Hyperpigmentation
Hepatomegaly
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3 mins
Acute Pancreatitis Causes
"GET SMASHHED" Mnemonic
Gallstones
(Ethanol) Alcohol
Trauma
Steroids
Mumps
Autoimmune
Scorpion Sting
Hypercalcemia
Hypertriglyceridemia > 1000
ERCP
Drugs
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1 min
Ulcerative Colitis Characteristics
Autoimmune
Mucosal and Submucosal Only
Rectal Involvement
Stepwise Lesions
Friable Pseudopolyp
Crypt Abscess
Loss of Haustra
Lead Pipe Appearance
Bloody Diarrhea
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2 mins

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