Richard Shared "Block 2 - bone and muscle shit" - 19 Picmonics

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Block 2 - bone and muscle shit

Osteosarcoma
Pathophysiology
Osteogenic Sarcoma
Peak incidence men 10-20 years old
Metaphysis of Long Bones
Knee Region
Radiation
Familial Retinoblastoma
Paget's Disease
Diagnosis
Codman Triangle
Sunburst Pattern from Elevated Periosteum
Grave Prognosis
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2 mins
Chondrosarcoma
Pathophysiology
Cartilaginous tumor
Malignant
Men 30-60 years old
Pelvic and femur bones
Signs & Symptoms
Glistening mass in medullary cavity
Can be primary in origin or from osteochondroma
Metastasize to lungs
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1 min
Ewing's Sarcoma
Epidemiology
Most Common in Boys < 15 years old
Pathophysiology
11;22 Translocation
Characteristics
Long bones, Pelvis, Ribs
Diaphysis
Small Blue Cells
Malignant
Aggressive
Onion-skin Appearance
TREATMENT
Responsive to Chemotherapy
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2 mins
Giant Cell Tumor
Pathophysiology
Osteoclastoma
Epiphyseal End of Long Bones
Peak Incidence 20-40 Years
Benign
Knee Region
Diagnosis
Soap Bubble Appearance on X-ray
Spindle-shaped Cells
Multinucleated Giant Cells
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46 secs
Paget's Disease of Bone
Pathophysiology
Men > Age 40
Increased Osteoblast and Osteoclast activity
Mosaic Pattern
Signs and Symptoms
Increased Skull Diameter
Hearing Loss
Fractures
Bone Ache and Joint Pain
High Output Heart Failure
Diagnosis
Bone Scan
Normal Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and Calcium
Elevated ALP
Treatment
Bisphosphonate
Calcitonin
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2 mins
Compartment Syndrome Assessment
Mechanism
Trauma
Increased Pressure
Compressed Nerves and Blood Vessels
Assessment
1 or more of 6 P's
Considerations
May take Days to develop
Early Detection
Ischemia
Damage often Irreversible
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1 min
Muscular Dystrophy
Mechanism
X-linked Recessive
Signs and Symptoms
Muscle Weakness
Motor Problems
Gower Sign
Large Calves
Waddling Gait
Loss of Ambulation
Consideration
Cardiac and Respiratory Failure
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2 mins
Guillain-Barre Syndrome Assessment
Assessment
Ascending Paralysis
Muscle Weakness
Paresthesias (Pins and Needles)
Diplopia
Difficulty Speaking
Dysphagia
Labile Blood Pressure
Loss of Bowel and Bladder Control
Considerations
Aggressive Airway Management
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2 mins
Lambert-Eaton Syndrome
Mechanism
Autoantibody to the Presynaptic Calcium Channel on Motor Neurons
Inhibits Acetylcholine (ACh) Release at Neuromuscular Junction
Paraneoplastic Syndrome
Small Cell Lung Cancer
Symptoms
Proximal Muscle Weakness
Improves with Muscle Use
Autonomic Symptoms
Extraocular Muscle Sparing
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2 mins
Myasthenia Gravis
Mechanism
Antibodies to Acetylcholine Receptor
Symptoms
Ptosis
Diplopia
Weakness with Muscle Use
Respiratory Death
Thymus Associated
Treatment
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors
Plasmapheresis
Thymectomy
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1 min
Polymyositis / Dermatomyositis Disease
Pathophysiology
Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy
More Common in Women
Endomysial Inflammation with CD8+ Cells (Polymyositis)
Perimysial Inflammation with CD4+ Cells (Dermatomyositis)
Signs and Symptoms (Both)
Symmetric Proximal Muscle Weakness
Dysphagia
Lung and Cardiac Involvement
Signs and Symptoms (Dermatomyositis)
Malar Rash
Shawl-like Shoulder Rash
Gottron Papules on Knuckles
Heliotrope Rash
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3 mins
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
Decreased Type I Collagen Production
Symptoms
Phenotypically Diverse
Brittle Bone Disease
Fractures from Minimal Trauma
Confused with Child Abuse
Hearing Loss
Dental Imperfections
Blue Sclera
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1 min
Osteopetrosis (Marble Bone Disease)
Pathophysiology
Defective Osteoclast Resorption
Carbonic Anhydrase II Mutation
Lack of Acidic Environment
Symptoms
Fractures
Nerve Palsies
Diagnosis
Myelophthisic Anemia
Erlenmeyer Flask Bones
Normal ALP and PTH
Normal Calcium and Phosphorus
Bone-in-bone Appearance
Treatment
Bone Marrow Transplant
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2 mins
Achondroplasia
Mechanism
Autosomal Dominant
Advanced Paternal Age
Most Common Cause of Dwarfism
Mutation of FGFR3 (Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3)
Defective Endochondral Ossification
Symptoms
Delayed Motor Milestones
Shortened Limbs with Normal Axial Skeleton Size
May Develop Hydrocephalus
Symptoms of Spinal Stenosis
Normal Life Span and Fertility
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2 mins
Vitamin D Deficiency
Signs & Symptoms
Rickets in children
Bending bones
Rachitic rosary
Breast milk has decreased vitamin D
Osteomalacia in adults
Tetany from Hypocalcemia
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1 min
Vitamin C Mechanism and Deficiency
Mechanism
Ascorbic acid
Antioxidant
Protects Against Free Radicals
Keeps Iron in Reduced State
Hydroxylation of Proline and Lysine
Necessary for Dopamine B Hydroxylase
Deficiency Signs and Symptoms
Scurvy
Swollen Gums
Bruising
Poor Wound Healing
Hemarthrosis
Perifollicular Hemorrhages
Anemia
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4 mins
Von Gierke Disease
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Type I Glycogen Storage Disease
Glucose-6-Phosphatase Deficiency
Signs and Symptoms
Increased Glycogen in Liver
Hepatomegaly
Enlarged Kidneys
Severe Fasting Hypoglycemia
Increased Triglycerides
Increased Uric Acid (Gout)
Increased Lactic Acid
Doll-like Facies
Treatment
Continuous Oral Glucose (or Cornstarch)
Avoid Fructose and Galactose
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2 mins
McArdles Disease
Pathophysiology
Type V Glycogen Storage Disease
Muscle Glycogen Phosphorylase Deficiency
Signs and Symptoms
Increased Glycogen in Muscle
Painful Muscle Cramps
Myoglobinuria
Normal Lactic Acid
Treatment
Vitamin B6
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2 mins
Pompe Disease
Pathophysiology
Type II Glycogen Storage Disease
Autosomal Recessive
Deficiency of Lysosomal Alpha 1,4 Glucosidase
Acid Maltase
Signs and Symptoms
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Hepatomegaly
Macroglossia
Hypotonia
Diagnosis
Increased Glycogen within Lysosomes
Increased Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)
Increased Creatine Kinase (CK/CPK)
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2 mins

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