Craig Shared "Cancer" - 15 Picmonics

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Cancer

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
Ages < 15
May Present with Bone Marrow Involvement in Children
Mediastinal Mass in Adolescents
TdT Positive
CALLA Positive
t(12;21) Better Prognosis
Spread to CNS and Testes
Most Responsive to Chemotherapy
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2 mins
Adult T Cell Lymphoma
Caused by HTLV 1
Japan, West Africa, Caribbean
Present with cutaneous lesions
Aggressive
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1 min
Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma
Epidemiology
Most Common Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Usually in Older Adults
20% in Children
Features
May be Mature T Cell in Origin
Derives from Germinal Center
GI Tract and Brain
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2 mins
Mantle Cell Lymphoma
Older Males
Activation of Cyclin D Gene
T 11;14
CD5
Poor Prognosis
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54 secs
Thymic Aplasia (DiGeorge Syndrome)
Pathophysiology
DiGeorge Syndrome
22q11 Deletion
Failure to Develop Third and Fourth Pharyngeal Pouches
Signs and Symptoms
Undeveloped Thymus
T Cell Deficiency
Recurrent Viral and Fungal Infections
Undeveloped Parathyroids
Hypocalcemia
Tetany
Aortic Defects
Congenital Heart Defects
Diagnosis
Absent Thymic Shadow on CXR
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2 mins
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)
Myeloblasts Increase on Peripheral Smear
Median Onset 60 Years
T 15;17 M3 Subtype
Auer Rods
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) is a Common Presentation
M5 Gum Infiltration
Responds to Vitamin A
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3 mins
Burkitt's Lymphoma
Adolescents or young adults
C-myc gene moves next to heavy chain Ig gene
T 8;14
Starry sky appearance
Sheets of lymphocytes with interspersed macrophages
Jaw lesion in endemic (African) form
Pelvis or abdomen in non endemic form (American form)
Associated with EBV
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2 mins
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
Signs and Symptoms
Age > 60 Years
B Cell Neoplasm
Smudge Cells
Often Asymptomatic
Cold IgM Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
Warm IgG Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
Richter's Transformation
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3 mins
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
Age 30 to 90 Years
BCR-ABL
9;22 Translocation
Philadelphia Chromosome
Tyrosine Kinase
Low Alkaline Phosphatase (ALK-P)
Splenomegaly
Blast Crisis can Accelerate and Transform to AML or ALL
Imatinib (Gleevec)
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2 mins
Follicular Lymphoma
Derives from Germinal Center
Occurs in adults
T14;18
BCL 2 overexpression
BCL 2 inhibits apoptosis
Indolent
Generalized lymphadenopathy
Bone marrow involvement
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2 mins
Hairy Cell Leukemia
Pathophysiology
Mature B Cell Tumor
Signs and Symptoms
Splenomegaly
Diagnosis
Flow Cytometry
Cells Have Filamentous Hair-Like Projections
Stains TRAP Positive
Dry Tap on Bone Marrow Aspiration
Treatment
Cladribine
Pentostatin
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2 mins
Hodgkin Lymphoma Pathophysiology
Pathophysiology
Reed-Sternberg Cells
Binucleate
Owl's Eyes Appearance
CD 15 and CD 30
B Cell Origin
Bimodal Age Distribution
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2 mins
Hodgkin Lymphoma Signs & Symptoms
Signs and Symptoms
Localized Single Group of Lymph Nodes
Contiguous Spread
Constitutional B Symptoms
Low-Grade Fever
Night Sweats
Weight Loss
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2 mins
Multiple Myeloma Pathophysiology
Pathophysiology
Monoclonal Plasma Cell Cancer
Clock Face Chromatin
Diagnosis
M Spike on Protein Electrophoresis
Increased IgG and IgA
Fried Egg Appearance (BM Biopsy)
Rouleaux Formation
Stacked RBC's
Bence Jones Protein
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2 mins
Multiple Myeloma Signs and Symptoms
Signs and Symptoms
Increased Susceptibility to Infection
Back/Bone Pain
Punched Out Lytic Bone Lesions
Hypercalcemia
Primary Amyloidosis
Renal Insufficiency
Anemia
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2 mins

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