With Picmonic, facts become pictures. We've taken what the science shows - image mnemonics work - but we've boosted the effectiveness by building and associating memorable characters, interesting audio stories, and built-in quizzing. Whether you're studying for your classes or getting ready for a big exam, we're here to help.
Pleural Lung Diseases
Physiologic Dead Space (VD)
Tidal Volume (VT)
Partial pressure of arterial CO2 (PaCO2)
Partial pressure of CO2 in expired air (PECO2)
VD = TV x (PaCO2-PECO2) / PaCO2
Partial pressure of alveolar oxygen (PAO2)
Partial Pressure of Arterial O2 (PaO2)
Normal 10 to 15 mmHg
Hypoxemia with an Abnormal A-a Gradient
Shunting (Low V/Q)
Dead space (high V/Q)
Alveolar Gas Equation
Partial Pressure of Alveolar Oxygen (PAO2)
Partial Pressure of Oxygen in the Inspired Air (PIO2)
PIO2 Normally Approximated = 150 mmHg
Arterial Partial Pressure of CO2 (PaCO2)
Respiratory Quotient (R)
R Normally Approximated = 0.8
PAO2 = PIO2 - (PaCO2/R)
Evaluates Respiratory Compensation
Used in Metabolic Acidosis
(HCO3 x 1.5 ) + 8 plus-minus 2 = PCO2
Bicarbonate (HCO3) x 1.5
= Expected Value for PCO2
Determines Transudative vs. Exudative Source of Pleural Effusion
Exudate if (At Least One of the Following):
Effusion/Serum Protein Ratio > 0.5
Effusion/Serum LDH Ratio > 0.6
Effusion LDH > Two-thirds Upper Serum LDH Range
Ace Your Medicine (MD/DO) Classes & Exams with Picmonic:
Over 1,090,000 students use Picmonic’s picture mnemonics to improve knowledge, retention, and exam performance.
Choose the #1 Medicine (MD/DO) student study app.
Picmonic for Medicine (MD/DO) covers information that is relevant to your entire Medicine (MD/DO) education. Whether you’re studying for your classes or getting ready to conquer the USMLE Step 1, USMLE Step 2 CK, COMLEX Level 1, or COMLEX Level 2, we’re here to help.
Works better than traditional Medicine (MD/DO) flashcards.
Research shows that students who use Picmonic see a 331% improvement in memory retention and a 50% improvement in test scores.