Christina Shared "BMS Exam #1" - 24 Picmonics

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BMS Exam #1

Normal Electrolyte Lab Values
Potassium (K+)
3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L
Calcium (Ca2+)
8.5 to 10.5 mg/dL
Phosphate (PO43–)
2.5 to 4.5 mg/dL
Magnesium (Mg2+)
1.5 to 2.5 mEq/L
Sodium (Na+)
135 to 145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl)
95 to 105 mEq/L
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2 mins
IV Solutions
Hypotonic (< 280 mOsm/L)
1/4 Normal Saline (0.225% NaCl)
1/2 Normal Saline (0.45% NaCl)
Isotonic (280-300 mOsm)
Normal Saline (0.9% NaCl)
Lactated Ringer's (LR)
Dextrose 5% in Water (D5W)
Hypertonic (> 300 mOsm)
3% or 5% NaCl
Dextrose 5% in 0.45% NaCl
Dextrose 10% in Water (D10W)
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3 mins
Diabetes Assessment
Assessment Type 1
Juvenile Onset
Absent Insulin Production
Ketosis Prone
Assessment Type 2
Adult Onset
Insulin Resistance
Obesity
Gestational Diabetes
Onset During Pregnancy
Glucose Intolerance
Complications
Retinopathy
Peripheral Vascular Disease
Nephropathy
Neuropathy
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2 mins
Diabetes Education
Self-Monitoring (Blood Glucose)
SubQ Injection Technique
Lifestyle Changes
Symptoms of Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia
Sick Day Care
Foot Care
Exercise Therapy
Medication
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1 min
Diabetes Interventions
Early Diagnosis
Insulin
Oral Hypoglycemics
Glucose Monitoring
Routine Exercise
Diabetic Diet
Monitor for Complications
Insulin Therapy
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
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2 mins
Metformin (Glucophage)
Mechanism
Decrease Glucose Production
Increase Insulin Sensitivity
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Side Effects
GI Distress
Decreased Appetite
Lactic Acidosis
Considerations
IV Contrast
Limit Alcohol Consumption
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2 mins
Chlorpropamide and Tolbutamide (Orinase) (1st Generation Sulfonylureas)
Mechanisms
1st Generation Sulfonylureas
Stimulate Release of Insulin
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Hypoglycemia
Possible Cardiovascular Toxicity
Considerations
Beta-blockers Reduce Effects
Avoid During Pregnancy and Breast Feeding
Avoid Alcohol
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2 mins
Acarbose (Precose) and Miglitol (Glyset) (Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors)
Mechanisms
Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors
Delays Absorption of Carbohydrates
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Flatulence
Diarrhea
Anemia
Cramps
Considerations
Monitor LFTs
Oral Glucose for Hypoglycemia
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2 mins
Repaglinide and Nateglinide (Meglitinides)
Mechanisms
Meglitinides
Increased Insulin Release
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effect
Hypoglycemia
Considerations
Eat Within 30 Minutes
Gemfibrozil Increases Risk of Hypoglycemia
Short Half-Life
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2 mins
Pioglitazone (Thiazolidinediones)
-glitazones Suffix
Mechanism
Binds PPAR-Gamma
Decreases Insulin Resistance
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Weight Gain
Heart Failure
Myalgia
Hypoglycemia
Upper Respiratory Infection
Considerations
Increased Risk of Bladder Cancer
Increased Fracture Risk in Women
Monitor Liver Enzymes
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2 mins
Hemoglobin A1c Lab Value
4-6%
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1 min
Hypomagnesemia
Assessment
Confusion
Increased Deep Tendon Reflexes (DTRs)
Neuromuscular Irritability
Seizures
Muscle Cramps
Tremors
Insomnia
Tachycardia
Interventions
Magnesium Sulfate
Foods High in Magnesium
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1 min
Hyperglycemia
Mechanism
Insulin Resistance
Too Little Insulin/Medication
Infection/Illness
Corticosteroids
Assessment
Elevated Blood Glucose
Polyphagia
Polydipsia
Polyuria
Hypotension
Fatigue/Drowsiness
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1 min
Insulin
Rapid Acting
Insulin Lispro (Humalog)
Insulin Aspart (Novolog)
Insulin Glulisine (Apidra)
Short Acting
Regular Insulin (Humulin R)
Intermediate Acting
Isophane NPH (Humulin N)
Long Acting
Detemir (Levemir)
Glargine (Lantus)
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2 mins
Mixing NPH and Regular Insulin for Injection
Verify Order
Roll NPH Insulin
Alcohol to Multiuse Vials
Inject Air into NPH Insulin (Cloudy)
Inject Air into Regular Insulin (Clear)
Withdraw Regular Insulin Units
Withdraw NPH Units
Verify with 2nd Nurse
Discard if Error
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3 mins
BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) Lab Values
10-20 mg/dL
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40 secs
Creatinine Lab Values
Measures Renal Function
0.6 - 1.3 mg/dL
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1 min
Red Blood Cell Count (RBC) Lab Values
Women: 3.5-5.5 million cells/ MuL
Men: 4.3-5.9  million cells/ MuL
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1 min
WBC Differential Lab Value
White Blood Cells (WBC)
5-10 (5,000-10,000)
Leukocyte Differential
Neutrophils (50%-70%)
Bands (2%-5%)
Segs (50%-70%)
Lymphocytes (20%-40%)
Monocytes (4%-8%)
Eosinophils (2%-4%)
Basophils (0.5%-1.5%)
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2 mins
Hemoglobin (Hgb) Lab Values
Men: 13 - 17 g/dL
Women: 12 - 16 g/dL
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46 secs

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