Fawaz Shared "JT antivirals & antiarrhythmics" - 25 Picmonics

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JT antivirals & antiarrhythmics

Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Na+ Channel Blockers)
Indications
Arrhythmias
Mechanism of Action
Increase AP, ERP, and QT interval.
Drugs
Disopyramide
Procainamide
Drug-induced Lupus
Quinidine
Cinchonism
Shared Side Effects
Thrombocytopenia
Torsades de Pointes
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1 min
Class IB Antiarrhythmics (Na+ Channel Blockers)
Indications
Arrhythmias
After Myocardial Infarction
Mechanism of Action
Affect Ischemic Tissue
Decrease AP duration
Drugs
Mexiletine
GI Upset
Lidocaine
CNS Depression
Tocainide
Phenytoin
Hirsutism
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2 mins
Class IC Antiarrhythmics (Na+ Channel Blockers)
Indications
Used as Last Resort
V-Tach
Mechanism of Action
No Effect on AP Duration
Drugs
Propafenone
Flecainide
Contraindications
Post-Myocardial Infarction
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55 secs
Class III Antiarrhythmics (K+ Channel Blockers)
Indications
Arrhythmias
Mechanism of Action
Increase AP Duration, ERP, and QT Interval
Drug Names
Amiodarone
Check Function Tests
Dirty Drug
Ibutilide
Dofetilide
Sotalol
Beta-Blocker
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2 mins
Class IV Antiarrhythmics (Ca2+ Channel Blockers)
Indications
SVT
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Mechanism of Action
Decrease Conduction Velocity
Increase PR Interval and ERP
Drugs
Verapamil
Diltiazem
Nimodipine
Side Effects
Cardiovascular
Constipation
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2 mins
Phenytoin
Indications
Status Epilepticus
Tonic-Clonic Seizures
Mechanism of Action
Blocks Na+ Channel Activation
Inhibition of Glutamate Release
Class IB Antiarrhythmic
Side Effects
Teratogenic
Macrocytic Megaloblastic Anemia
Induce Cytochrome P450
Drug-induced Lupus
Neuropathy
Hirsutism
Gingival Hyperplasia
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1 min
Digoxin (Lanoxin)
Mechanism of Action
Increases Inotropy
Indications
Heart Failure
Atrial Fibrillation
Side Effects
Bradycardia
Fatigue
Contraindications
Heart Block
Nursing Considerations
Heart Rate Below 60
Hypokalemia
Monitor for Toxicity and Visual Changes
Digibind
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2 mins
Digoxin Mechanism and Indication
Direct inhibition of Na K ATPase
Indirect inhibition of Na Ca exchanger
Increase Ca in cell
Positive Inotropy
CHF
Stimulates Vagus Nerve
Decreased conduction at AV node
Atrial Fibrillation
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1 min
Acute Digoxin Toxicity
Clinical Symptoms
Hyperkalemia
Cholinergic (Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea)
Blurry Yellow Green Vision with Halo of Light
Arrhythmia
Bradycardia
EKG Changes
Prolonged PR interval
Decreased QT
Scooping on EKG
T Wave Inversion
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2 mins
Digoxin Toxicity Treatment
Activated Charcoal
Slowly Normalize K+
Digibind (Anti-Digoxin Fab)
Magnesium Sulfate
Lidocaine
Cardiac Pacing
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2 mins
Lidocaine
Mechanism
Blocks Na+ Channels
Indications
Ventricular Arrhythmia
Anesthetic
Side Effects
Paresthesias
Seizures
Respiratory Depression
Drowsiness
Consideration
Anesthetic Effects Extended with Epinephrine
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1 min
Acyclovir (Zovirax)
Mechanism
Guanosine Analog
Inhibits Viral Replication
Thymidine Kinase Activation
Indications
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)
Side Effects (Oral)
Headache
GI Distress
Side Effects (IV)
CNS Toxicity
Nephrotoxicity (Crystalline Nephropathy)
Considerations
Prevents Recurrent Episodes
Slow IV Infusion
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2 mins
Cidofovir
Indications
CMV Retinitis
Acyclovir-resistant HSV
Mechanism
Inhibits Viral DNA Polymerase
Side Effects
Nephrotoxicity
Administer with Probenecid and IV Saline
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1 min
Foscarnet
Indications
CMV Retinitis
Acyclovir-resistant HSV
Mechanism
Does Not Require Activation (by Viral Kinase)
Inhibits Viral DNA Polymerase
Pyrophosphate Analog
Resistance through Mutated DNA Polymerase
Side Effects
Nephrotoxicity
Electrolyte Abnormalities
Hypokalemia
Hypocalcemia
Hypomagnesemia
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2 mins
Ganciclovir
Indications
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Immunocompromised
Mechanism
Guanosine Analog
Disrupts DNA Synthesis
Inhibits Viral DNA Polymerase
Side Effects
Hematologic Effects
Nephrotoxicity
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1 min
Ribavirin
Mechanism
Hypermutation in RNA Viruses
Inhibits Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase
Indications
Hepatitis C
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
Side Effects
Hemolytic Anemia
Teratogen
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1 min
Fusion Inhibitors
Indications
HIV
Drugs
Maraviroc
Binds CCR-5 on T Cells
Blocks Interaction with gp120
Enfuvirtide
Binds gp41
Inhibits Viral Entry
Side Effects
Skin Reactions at Injection Sites (Enfuvirtide)
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2 mins
HAART
HIV
Begin at Diagnosis
3 Drugs
2 NRTIs (Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors)
And one of the following:
NNRTI (Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor)
or Protease Inhibitor
or Integrase Inhibitor
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2 mins
Integrase Inhibitors
-gravir Suffix
Indications
HIV
Mechanism
Blocks Insertion of Viral Genome
Inhibit Actions of Integrase
Side Effects
Hypercholesterolemia
Increased LFT's
Insomnia
Increased Creatine Kinase (CK)
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1 min
NNRTI Drug Names
Nevirapine (Viramune)
Rilpivirine (Edurant)
Delavirdine (DLV, Rescriptor)
Efavirenz (EFV, Sustiva)
Etravirine (ETR, Intelence)
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54 secs

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