Nigel Shared "Pathology - Block4Exam3" - 22 Picmonics

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Pathology - Block4Exam3

Transplant Rejection
Hyperacute
Occurs within Minutes
Antibody Mediated Due to Preformed Antidonor Antibodies
Acute
Occurs within Weeks
Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Cause Cell-mediated or Antibody-mediated Response
Chronic
Occurs Months to Years Later
Antibody and T Cell-mediated Vascular Damage
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2 mins
Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin
Pathophysiology
Most Common Skin Cancer
2/3 of Cases Due to UV Light Exposure
Pink, Pearl-like Lesions
Rolled Borders
Telangiectasias
Commonly Upper Lip
Diagnosis
Shave Biopsy
Pallisading Nuclei
Treatment
Mohs Micrographic Surgery
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2 mins
Restrictive vs. Obstructive Lung Diseases
Restrictive Lung Disease
Decreased Lung Volume
FEV1/FVC Ratio Normal to Increased
Obstructive Lung Disease
Increased Lung Volume
Decreased FEV1/FVC Ratio
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2 mins
Restrictive Lung Diseases
Poor Breathing Mechanics
Interstitial Lung Diseases
Goodpasture's Syndrome
Eosinophilic Granuloma
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis
Sarcoidosis
Pneumoconiosis
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Drug Toxicity
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome
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2 mins
Obstructive Lung Disease
Blocked Airflow
Increased residual volume
V/Q Mismatch
Decreased forced vital capacity (FVC)
Decreased FEV1/FVC ratio
Asthma
Bronchiectasis
Chronic bronchitis
Emphysema
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51 secs
COPD Overview (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overview)
Causes
Inhaled Toxins
Smoking
AAT Deficiency
Assessment
Emphysema
Chronic Bronchitis
Asthma
Considerations
Spirometry
Slow Progression
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2 mins
Pulmonary Embolism Presentation and Diagnosis
Presentation
Sudden onset Shortness of Breath (S.O.B.)
Tachypnea
Pleuritic Chest Pain
Hemoptysis
Hypoxemia
Sudden Death
Diagnosis
Gold Standard: CT Pulmonary Angiography
X-Ray
D-Dimer
V/Q Scan
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1 min
Wells' Criteria for Pulmonary Embolism
Scoring
Clinical Symptoms of DVT (+3)
Pulmonary Embolism Most Likely Diagnosis (+3)
Tachycardia (+1.5)
Immobilization > 3 Days (+1.5)
Previous DVT or PE (+1.5)
Hemoptysis (+1)
Malignancy (+1)
Probability
> 6 = High
2-6 = Moderate
< 2 = Low
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3 mins
Pulmonary Embolism Causes
Causes
FAT BAT Mnemonic
Fat
Air
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Bacteria
Amniotic Fluid
Tumor
Risk Factors
Hypercoagulable
Central Venous Lines
Immobilized
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1 min
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Interventions
Interventions
Closely Monitor Patient
ABG's (Arterial Blood Gases)
Oxygen
Assess for O2 Toxicity
Mechanical Ventilation
PEEP
Assess for Pneumothorax
Permissive Hypercapnia
Considerations
High Mortality Rate
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2 mins
Asthma
Obstructive lung disease
Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness
History of Atopic Disease
Beta2 agonists
Corticosteroids
Curschmann's spirals
Hypertrophy of smooth muscle
Reversible
Charcot Leyden crystals
Methacholine challenge
Wheezing
Cough
Initially decreased PaCO2
Pulsus paradoxus
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2 mins
Intermittent Asthma
Diagnosis
Symptoms (Bronchoconstriction) and Rescue Inhaler Use ≤ 2 / Week
No Interference With ADLs
Nighttime Awakening < 2 / Month
> 80 % of Predicted FEV1
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1 min
Persistent Mild Asthma
Diagnosis
Symptoms (Brochoconstriction) and Rescue Inhaler Use > 2 Days / Week
Nighttime Awakening 3-4 / Month
Greater or equal to 80 % of Predicted FEV1
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1 min
Persistent Moderate Asthma
Diagnosis
Symptoms (Bronchoconstriction) and Rescue Inhaler Use Daily
Nighttime Awakening > 1 / Week
60-80% Predicted FEV1
FEV1/FVC Decreased 5%
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2 mins
Persistent Severe Asthma
Diagnosis
Symptoms (Bronchoconstriction) and Rescue Inhaler Use: Multiple/ Day
With Minimal Activity
Nighttime Awakening: Nightly
< 60% Predicted FEV1
> 5% Decrease FEV1/FVC
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2 mins
Stages of Asthma Treatments
Intermittent Asthma
Short-acting Inhaled Beta-Agonist
Persistent Mild Asthma
Low-Dose Inhaled Corticosteroid
Montelukast (Leukotriene Receptor Antagonist)
Cromolyn (Mast Cell Stabilizers)
Theophylline
Persistent Moderate Asthma
Long-acting Inhaled Beta-Agonist
Zileuton
Low-Medium Dose Inhaled Corticosteroid
Persistent Severe Asthma
High-Dose Inhaled Corticosteroid
Omalizumab (Allergies)
Systemic Corticosteroids
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3 mins
Bronchiectasis
Obstructive Lung Disease
Chronic Necrotizing Infection
Permanent Airway Dilation
Poor Ciliary Motility
Kartagener's Syndrome
Cystic Fibrosis
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis
Hemoptysis
Increased Sputum
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2 mins
Adenocarcinoma of the Lung
Characteristics
Most Common Lung Cancer
Most Common in Nonsmokers
Peripheral Location
KRAS, EGFR, and ALK Mutations
Diagnosis
Glandular Pattern
Often Stains with Mucin
Clinical Features
Presents with Hemoptysis
Clubbing
Treatment
Surgical Resection
Chemotherapy and Radiation
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2 mins
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung
Characteristics
Strong Correlation with Smoking
More Common in Men
Central Location
Cavitating Lesion Extending to Hilum
PTHrP causes Hypercalcemia
Diagnosis
Keratin Pearls
Intercellular Bridges
Treatment
Surgical Resection (if Early Stage)
Chemotherapy and Radiation (if Later Stage)
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2 mins
Small Cell (Oat Cell) Carcinoma
Characteristics
Aggressively Malignant
Strong Correlation with Smoking
Central Location
Amplification of myc Oncogenes
Signs and Symptoms
Narrowing of Bronchial Airways
Cushing's Syndrome
Ectopic ACTH
Syndrome Of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)
Lambert-Eaton Syndrome
Diagnosis
Kulchitsky Cells
Neuron-Specific Enolase Positive
Chromogranin A Positive
Treatment
Chemotherapy and Radiation
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3 mins

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