Ally Shared "155 final" - 19 Picmonics

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155 final

Metformin (Glucophage)
Mechanism
Decrease Glucose Production
Increase Insulin Sensitivity
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Side Effects
GI Distress
Decreased Appetite
Lactic Acidosis
Considerations
IV Contrast
Limit Alcohol Consumption
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2 mins
Chlorpropamide and Tolbutamide (Orinase) (1st Generation Sulfonylureas)
Mechanisms
1st Generation Sulfonylureas
Stimulate Release of Insulin
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Hypoglycemia
Possible Cardiovascular Toxicity
Considerations
Beta-blockers Reduce Effects
Avoid During Pregnancy and Breast Feeding
Avoid Alcohol
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2 mins
Glyburide and Glipizide (2nd Generation Sulfonylureas)
Mechanisms
2nd Generation Sulfonylureas
Blocks Potassium Channels in Beta Cells
Stimulate Release of Insulin
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Hypoglycemia
Considerations
More Potent
Beta Blockers Reduce Effects
Avoid Alcohol
Avoid Breastfeeding
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2 mins
Glucagon (GlucaGen)
Mechanism
Increases Glucose
Indications
Hypoglycemic Emergency
Side Effects
Nausea and Vomiting
Considerations
Reconstitute Powder
Consume Oral Carbohydrates
50% Dextrose IV (If No Effect)
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2 mins
Prednisone (Glucocorticoids)
Mechanism
Glucocorticoid
Indications
Inflammatory Conditions
Organ Transplant Rejection
Side Effects
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Cushing's Syndrome
Osteoporosis
Immunosuppression
Hyperglycemia
Ulcers
Considerations
Adrenal Insufficiency
Taper Gradually
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2 mins
Levothyroxine (Synthroid)
Mechanism
Synthetic T4
Indications
Hypothyroidism
Side Effects
Thyrotoxicosis
Tremors
Heat Intolerance
Insomnia
Tachycardia
Considerations
Do Not Use for Obesity
TSH Monitoring
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2 mins
Methotrexate
Indications
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Cancer
Medical Abortion
Mechanism
Folic Acid Analog
Inhibits Dihydrofolate Reductase
Side Effects
Pulmonary Fibrosis
Myelosuppression is Treated with Leucovorin Rescue (Folinic Acid)
Macrocytic Anemia
Hepatitis
Teratogenic
Mucositis
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1 min
Cephalosporins
Starts with "Cef-"
Mechanism of Action
Bactericidal
Indications
Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Infections
Side Effects
Allergic Reactions
Thrombophlebitis
Bleeding
Contraindications
Renal Impairment
Considerations
Avoid IV Calcium with Ceftriaxone
No Alcohol
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2 mins
Aminoglycoside Overview
End in "-mycin"
GNATS
Gentamicin
Neomycin
Amikacin
Tobramycin
Streptomycin
Mechanism of Action
Bactericidal
Indications
Severe Gram Negative Infections
Bowel Surgery Prep
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1 min
Aminoglycoside Side Effects
Side Effects
Ototoxicity
Nephrotoxicity
Respiratory Paralysis
Contraindications
Pregnancy
Considerations
Peak and Trough
Never Mix with Penicillin in Same IV
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2 mins
Fluoroquinolones
End in "-floxacin"
Mechanism of Action
Bactericidal
Indications
Variety of Infections
Side Effects
GI Distress
Photosensitivity
Achilles Tendon Rupture
Contraindications
Pregnancy
Children
Myasthenia Gravis
Considerations
Avoid Milk Products or Antacids
Slow IV Infusion
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2 mins
Ampicillin and Amoxicillin
Mechanism
Aminopenicillin
Broad Spectrum Penicillin
Indications
Gram-Positive and Some Gram-Negative Infections
Side Effects
Rash
Diarrhea
Considerations
No Effect Against Staph Aureus
Often combined with Beta Lactamase Inhibitor
Allergic Reaction
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2 mins
Atropine
Mechanism of Action
Muscarinic Antagonist
Indications
Bradycardia
Increased Exocrine Secretions
Smooth Muscle Spasms
Side Effects
Tachycardia
Dry Mouth
Urinary Retention
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2 mins
Macrolides
End in "-thromycin"
Mechanism of Action
Bacteriostatic
Indications
Alternative for Penicillin Allergy
Respiratory Infections
Pneumonia
Side Effects
QT Prolongation and Sudden Death
C.Diff Overgrowth
GI Distress
Considerations
Slow IV Infusion
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2 mins
Sulfonamides
Mechanism of Action
Bacteriostatic
Indications
Urinary Tract Infection
Side Effects
Crystalluria
Photosensitivity
Hemolytic Anemia
Kernicterus
Rash
Considerations
Sulfa Allergy
Encourage Fluids
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2 mins
Sulfonamides Side Effects
Side Effects
Hypersensitivity
Nephrotoxicity
Photosensitivity
Kernicterus in Infants
Displaces Warfarin from Albumin
Considerations
Hemolysis with G6PD Deficiency
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3 mins
Azoles (Ketoconazole)
"-azole" suffix
Indications
Local and Less Serious Systemic Mycosis
Mechanism
Inhibits Ergosterol Synthesis
Inhibits P450
Side Effects
Liver Dysfunction
Inhibition of Testosterone Synthesis
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1 min
Tetracyclines Overview
End in "-cycline"
Mechanism of Action
Bacteriostatic
Indications
Infectious Diseases
Acne
Periodontal Disease
Nursing Considerations
Avoid Milk, Antacids, Iron
Sunlight Protection
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1 min
Tetracyclines Side Effects
Side Effects
Superinfection
Clostridioides difficile
Discoloration of Teeth
Bone Deformities
Photosensitivity
Contraindications
Children Under 8
Pregnancy
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1 min

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