Jeet Shared "block 3 sd 5" - 70 Picmonics

With Picmonic, facts become pictures. We've taken what the science shows - image mnemonics work - but we've boosted the effectiveness by building and associating memorable characters, interesting audio stories, and built-in quizzing. Whether you're studying for your classes or getting ready for a big exam, we're here to help.

block 3 sd 5

Scleroderma
Types of Scleroderma
Diffuse scleroderma
Limited Scleroderma with CREST syndrome
Localized Scleroderma
Facts
Age of onset 30-50
Phases of Scleroderma
Comparison of symptoms
Can cause pulmonary hypertension
Can cause Interstitial Lung Disease
Renal Involvement
GI involvement
Esophageal Involvement
Not associated with arthritis
Can be assotiated with arthalgia, reduced ROM, and carpal tunnel
Can be associated with Cardiac disease, but this is poor prognosis
95% of scleroderma is positive for some type of ANA
Multiple Sclerosis Features and Mechanisms
Features
Twice as often in Women
Presents in 20's and 30's
Northern Europeans
Mechanism
Unknown mechanism, genetic factor
HLA-DRB1
Autoimmune Demyelination of CNS
White Matter of Brain and Spinal Cord
T Cell Mediated Inflammation
2 mins
Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms and Diagnosis
Symptoms
Optic Neuritis
Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia
Scanning Speech
Urinary and Fecal Incontinence
Motor Issues (Intention Tremor, Paresis)
Numbness and Pain
Depression
Relapsing Symptoms
Diagnosis
Gold Standard = Plaques on MRI
Increased CSF Immunoglobulins (IgG)
Oligoclonal Bands
4 mins
Multiple Sclerosis Interventions
Drug Therapy
Corticosteroids
Interferon Beta
Dimethyl Fumarate (Tecfidera)
Fingolimod (Gilenya)
Mitoxantrone (Novantrone)
Natalizumab (Tysabri)
Considerations
Increase Exercise
Identify Triggers
2 mins
CREST Syndrome (Limited Scleroderma)
Symptoms
Calcinosis
Raynauds phenomenon
Esophageal Dysmotility
Sclerodactyly
Telangiectasias
Pathogenesis
Anticentromere antibodies
Parkinson's Disease Assessment
Assessment
Decreased Dopamine
Older Adult
Cogwheel Rigidity
Bradykinesia
Shuffling Gait
Resting Tremor
Pill-Rolling
Mask-Like Face
Cognitive Decline
2 mins
Chronic Complication of Diabetes
Advanced glycation end products
Increased VEGF, TFG-beta and smooth muscle
AGEs crosslink ECM proteins
Albumin
Activation of protein kinase C
Oxidative stress
Cataract
Fructose-6-phosphate
Procoagulant effect
Diabetic Nephropathy
Visual impairment
Diabetic neuropathy
Enhanced susceptibility to infections
Polyarteritis Nodosa
Pathophysiology
Immune Complex-Mediated Transmural Vasculitis
Hepatitis B Association
Fibrinoid Necrosis
Signs and Symptoms
Black Stool (Melena)
Neurologic Dysfunction
Myalgia
Fever
Hypertension
Diagnosis
Vessels / Lesions in Different Stages
Renal Microaneurysms (On Arteriogram)
Spares Pulmonary Arteries (No Pulmonary Involvement)
Treatment
Corticosteroids
Cyclophosphamide
2 mins
Guillain-Barre Syndrome Assessment
Assessment
Ascending Paralysis
Muscle Weakness
Paresthesias (Pins and Needles)
Diplopia
Difficulty Speaking
Dysphagia
Labile Blood Pressure
Loss of Bowel and Bladder Control
Considerations
Aggressive Airway Management
2 mins
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Characteristics
Characteristics
Mycolic Acid Cell Wall
Acid-fast
Carbolfuchsin Stain Red
Lowenstein-Jensen Agar
Serpentine Cord Factor
Primary TB
Primary TB
Caseating Granuloma
Ghon Focus
Hilar Lymph Nodes
Ghon Complex
Reactivation TB
Reactivation TB
Reactivation in Apex
3 mins
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Treatments
Front Line
Isoniazid (INH)
Rifampin
Ethambutol
Pyrazinamide
Fluoroquinolones
Levofloxacin
Moxifloxacin
Injectables
Amikacin
Capreomycin
Kanamycin
Streptomycin
Core or Add-on 2nd Line
Ethionamide
Cycloserine
P-aminosalicylic acid (PAS)
Combination Drug Therapy (RIPE)
Tuberculosis Skin Mantoux Test (PPD)
Delayed Hypersensitivity (Cell Mediated Response)
Intradermal Injection
Read 48-72 hours
Positive Results
≥ 5 mm Induration
Immunosuppressed
≥ 10 mm Induration
High Risk Patients
≥ 15 mm Induration
Considerations
Chest X-Ray
3 mins
Amyloidosis
Primary
Multiple myeloma
Secondary
Tuberculosis (TB)
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Congo red stain
Apple green birefringence
Nephrotic
2 mins
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Assessment
Assessment
RNA Retrovirus
CD4+ Helper T Cells
Primary Infection
Flu-like Symptoms
Lymphadenopathy
Symptomatic Stage
Fatigue
Diarrhea
Unexplained Weight Loss
White Spots on Tongue
Persistent Fever
Night Sweats
2 mins
HIV CD4+ 100
Signs and Symptoms
Aspergillus fumigatus
Cryptococcus neoformans
Candida albicans (Esophagitis)
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) B-cell lymphoma
Toxoplasma gondii
Cryptosporidium
Bartonella henselae
5 mins
HIV CD4+ 200
Signs and Symptoms
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
JC Virus
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)
Pneumocystis Pneumonia
(HIV) Dementia
Histoplasmosis
3 mins
HIV CD4+ 500
Signs and Symptoms
Candida albicans (Oral Thrush)
Kaposi's Sarcoma (HHV-8)
Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
Epstein-Barr Virus (Oral Hairy Leukoplakia)
3 mins
HIV Prophylaxis Medications
CD4+ < 200
TMP-SMX
Pneumocystis Pneumonia
CD4+ < 100 Susceptible to Toxoplasma Gondii
CD4+ < 50
Mycobacterium Avium and Intracellulare
Azithromycin If Delayed Therapy
2 mins
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Stages
Primary Infection
Within 3 Weeks
Flu-like Symptoms
Asymptomatic Stage
Years
Symptomatic Stage
CD4+ < 500
AIDS
Opportunistic Infections
CD4+ < 200
2 mins
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Diagnosis
HIV-1/2 Antigen/Antibody Immunoassay
HIV-1/2 Antibody Differentiation Immunoassay
Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT)
Viral Load
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in Neonates
3 mins

Ace Your Medicine (MD/DO) Classes & Exams with Picmonic:

Over 1,090,000 students use Picmonic’s picture mnemonics to improve knowledge, retention, and exam performance.

Choose the #1 Medicine (MD/DO) student study app.

Picmonic for Medicine (MD/DO) covers information that is relevant to your entire Medicine (MD/DO) education. Whether you’re studying for your classes or getting ready to conquer the USMLE Step 1, USMLE Step 2 CK, COMLEX Level 1, or COMLEX Level 2, we’re here to help.

Works better than traditional Medicine (MD/DO) flashcards.

Research shows that students who use Picmonic see a 331% improvement in memory retention and a 50% improvement in test scores.

It's worth every penny