Menna Shared "Full biochem" - 113 Picmonics

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Full biochem

Lipid Metabolism and Ketogenesis
Lipid Metabolism
Acetyl-CoA
Biotin Cofactor
Malonyl-CoA
Fatty Acids
Triglycerides
Glycerol
DHAP
Acetoacetyl-CoA
HMG-CoA
HMG-CoA Reductase
Mevalonate
Cholesterol
Ketogenesis
Acetoacetate
Beta-Hydroxybutyrate
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4 mins
Energy Releasing Pathways: Accounting
Characteristics
Anaerobic Respiration
2 ATP
2 NADH
Aerobic Respiration
8 NADH
2 FADH2
2 ATP
Oxidative Phosphorylation
34 ATP
2 ATP Lost
36 Net Total ATP
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2 mins
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
Electron Transport Chain
Oxygen is Final Electron Acceptor
Proton Pump
Proton Motive Force
ATP Synthase
1 NADH 3 ATP
1 FADH2 2 ATP
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2 mins
Anaerobic Respiration
Cytosol
Glucose
Glycolysis
Substrate-level ATP Phosphorylation
2 NADH
2 Net ATP
2 Pyruvate
Fermentation
NAD+ Regeneration
Waste Byproduct
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2 mins
Aerobic Respiration
Mitochondrial Matrix
2 Pyruvate
Pyruvate Decarboxylation
2 NADH
2 Acetyl-CoA
Krebs Cycle
6 NADH
2 FADH2
2 Substrate Level ATPs
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1 min
Nucleus
Characteristics
Transcription Factors
Nucleolus Transcribes rRNA
DNA
RNA
Nuclear Membrane is a Bilayer
Membrane is Continuous with Endoplasmic Reticulum
Nucleus Surrounded by Cytosol
Nuclear Pores
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2 mins
Codon Overview
Characteristics
mRNA Read In Three Nucleotide Chunks
AUG Is Start Codon
Matching tRNA Anticodon
Amino Acid Specific (To Codon)
AUG Codes For Methionine
UAA, UAG And UGA Are Termination Codons
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2 mins
Chromosome and DNA
DNA is the blueprint for building an organism
A chromosome is packed with DNA
Chromosomes exist in pairs
Humans have 23 chromosome pairs
Chromosomes are found in the nucleus
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1 min
Chromosome Components
Characteristics
DNA
Histones
Nucleosomes
Chromatin
Chromosome
Telomere
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1 min
DNA Base Pairing
Characteristics
3' End
5' End
Antiparallel Base Pairing
Complementary Strands Pair
Thymine And Adenine Pair
2 Hydrogen Bonds
Adenine and Uracil Pair in RNA
Guanine And Cytosine Pair
3 Hydrogen Bonds
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3 mins
Chromosome Forms
Characteristics
Chromatid
Sister Chromatids
Homologous Chromosomes
Tetrad
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2 mins
Translation: Initiation
Translation: Initiation
Ribosome Binds mRNA
Complex Reads 5' to 3'
AUG Start Codon
Initiation Complex Forms
GTP and Initiation Factor Bring Complex Together
Met-tRNA Binds P Site
tRNA With Bound Amino Acids Binds A Site
Amino Acid Chain Created in Elongation
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3 mins
DNA Replication
Characteristics
DNA Gyrase Uncoils Supercoil
Helicase Separated DNA Strand
Single-Strand Binding (SSB) Protein Keeps Strands Separated
DNA Polymerase Synthesizes New Strand
3' To 5' Reading
Primase Creates RNA Primer
Telomerase Caps DNA Ends
DNA Ligase Combines Okazaki Fragments
Okazaki Fragments On Lagging Strand
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4 mins
Translation: Elongation & Termination
Translation: Elongation
Amino Acid Chain Created
New Amino Acid-tRNA Enters A Site
GTP and Elongation Factors Help tRNA Enter A Site
Peptide Chain Binds to New Amino Acid
Peptide Chain-tRNA Moves to P Site
Free tRNA in P Site Moves to E Site
Translation: Termination
Stop Codon at A Site Causes Termination
Release Factors Help Complex Disassociate
Complex Falls Apart
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3 mins
Transcription Overview
Initiation
RNA Polymerase binds Promoter
Elongation
DNA Opens by Helicase
RNA Polymerase reads 3' to 5'
Nucleotides added to 3' end
Termination
Stem Loop Formation
Rho protein factor
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3 mins
Eukaryotic Transcription Regulation
DNA Silencer Region
Transcription Factors bind Silencer Region
Decreased Transcription
Co-factors can deactivate factors
Co-factors can activate factors
DNA Enhancer Region
Transcription Factors bind Enhancer Region
Increased Transcription
Enhancer and Silencer regions can be far from Promoter
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2 mins
Eukaryotic Post Transcriptional Modification
Modifications in Nucleus
mRNA Splicing
Introns Cut Out
Exons spliced together
Alternate Splicing
5' Cap added
3' Poly A tail added
Transported to Cytosol
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2 mins
Cell Cycle Phases
Characteristics
G0 Phase
Growth Arrest
G1 Phase
G1 Check By Rb And p53
S Phase
DNA Mismatch Repair
DNA Synthesis
G2 Phase
G2 Check
M Phase
Mitosis And Cytokinesis
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3 mins
Prophase
Nuclear Membrane Disintegrates
Centrioles Migrate
Spindle Apparatus Forms
Meiosis I starts Diploid
Homologous Chromosomes form Tetrads
Tetrads Cross Over
Meiosis II starts Haploid
Mitosis starts Diploid
Sister Chromatid Pairs Stay Separated
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2 mins
Anaphase
Spindle Microtubules from Centrioles Split Pairs
Meiosis I Tetrad Splits into Two Sister Chromatid Pairs
Meiosis II Sister Chromatid Pair Splits into Two Chromatids
Mitosis Sister Chromatid Pair Splits into Two Chromatids
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1 min

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