Madison Shared "Test 3 Madison" - 40 Picmonics

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Test 3 Madison

Insulin
Rapid Acting
Insulin Lispro (Humalog)
Insulin Aspart (Novolog)
Insulin Glulisine (Apidra)
Short Acting
Regular Insulin (Humulin R)
Intermediate Acting
Isophane NPH (Humulin N)
Long Acting
Detemir (Levemir)
Glargine (Lantus)
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2 mins
Metformin (Glucophage)
Mechanism
Decrease Glucose Production
Increase Insulin Sensitivity
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Side Effects
GI Distress
Decreased Appetite
Lactic Acidosis
Considerations
IV Contrast
Limit Alcohol Consumption
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2 mins
Glyburide and Glipizide (2nd Generation Sulfonylureas)
Mechanisms
2nd Generation Sulfonylureas
Blocks Potassium Channels in Beta Cells
Stimulate Release of Insulin
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Hypoglycemia
Considerations
More Potent
Beta Blockers Reduce Effects
Avoid Alcohol
Avoid Breastfeeding
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2 mins
Acarbose (Precose) and Miglitol (Glyset) (Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors)
Mechanisms
Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors
Delays Absorption of Carbohydrates
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Flatulence
Diarrhea
Anemia
Cramps
Considerations
Monitor LFTs
Oral Glucose for Hypoglycemia
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2 mins
Pioglitazone (Thiazolidinediones)
-glitazones Suffix
Mechanism
Binds PPAR-Gamma
Decreases Insulin Resistance
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Weight Gain
Heart Failure
Myalgia
Hypoglycemia
Upper Respiratory Infection
Considerations
Increased Risk of Bladder Cancer
Increased Fracture Risk in Women
Monitor Liver Enzymes
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2 mins
Repaglinide and Nateglinide (Meglitinides)
Mechanisms
Meglitinides
Increased Insulin Release
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effect
Hypoglycemia
Considerations
Eat Within 30 Minutes
Gemfibrozil Increases Risk of Hypoglycemia
Short Half-Life
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2 mins
Sitagliptin (Januvia) and Saxagliptin (Onglyza) (DPP-4 Inhibitors)
-gliptin Suffix
Mechanisms
DPP-4 Inhibitor
Increases Insulin Release
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Pancreatitis
Upper Respiratory Infection and Inflammation
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
Considerations
Used as Add-on Agents
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2 mins
Exenatide (Byetta)
Mechanism
Incretin Mimetic
GLP-1 Synthetic Analog
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Hypoglycemia
Nausea and Vomiting
Diarrhea
Thyroid Cancer
Pancreatitis
Renal Failure
Considerations
(Give Exenatide) One Hour After Other Medications
Adjunct Therapy
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3 mins
Pramlintide (Symlin)
Mechanism
Synthetic Amylin Analog
Indications
Diabetes Type 1 and 2
Supplement Mealtime Insulin
Side Effects
Nausea
Skin Reactions at Injection Site
Considerations
Hypoglycemia When Combined with Insulin
Delayed Absorption of Oral Drugs
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2 mins
Glucagon (GlucaGen)
Mechanism
Increases Glucose
Indications
Hypoglycemic Emergency
Side Effects
Nausea and Vomiting
Considerations
Reconstitute Powder
Consume Oral Carbohydrates
50% Dextrose IV (If No Effect)
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2 mins
Levothyroxine (Synthroid)
Mechanism
Synthetic T4
Indications
Hypothyroidism
Side Effects
Thyrotoxicosis
Tremors
Heat Intolerance
Insomnia
Tachycardia
Considerations
Do Not Use for Obesity
TSH Monitoring
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2 mins
Propylthiouracil (PTU) and Methimazole (MMI)
Indications
Hyperthyroidism
Mechanism
Inhibits Thyroid Peroxidase
PTU Blocks Peripheral Conversion of T4 to T3
Side Effects
Agranulocytosis
Skin Rash
Hepatotoxicity (PTU)
Teratogen (MMI)
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1 min
Prednisone (Glucocorticoids)
Mechanism
Glucocorticoid
Indications
Inflammatory Conditions
Organ Transplant Rejection
Side Effects
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Cushing's Syndrome
Osteoporosis
Immunosuppression
Hyperglycemia
Ulcers
Considerations
Adrenal Insufficiency
Taper Gradually
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2 mins
Addison's Disease Intervention
Drug Therapy
Hydrocortisone
2/3 Dose in Morning
1/3 Dose in Late Afternoon
Fludrocortisone
Androgen Replacement Therapy
Considerations
Salt Additives
Increase Dosage During Stress and Infection
Medic Alert Bracelet
Lifelong Hormone Therapy
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2 mins
Hypercalcemia Treatments
Treat Underlying Disorder
Hydration
Dialysis
Calcium Restriction
Bisphosphonates
Calcitonin
Cinacalcet
Glucocorticosteroids
Denosumab
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2 mins
Hypocalcemia Treatments
Characteristics
Treat Underlying Disorder
Acute Treatments
IV Calcium Gluconate
Cardioprotective
Chronic Treatments
Calcium Carbonate
Calcium Citrate
Vitamin D Supplements
Considerations
Treat Hypomagnesemia
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2 mins
Osteoporosis Interventions
Increased Calcium Intake
Vitamin D Supplements
Bisphosphonates
Raloxifene
Denosumab
Calcitonin
Teriparatide
Bone Densitometry (DEXA) Scan
Weight Bearing Exercises
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2 mins
Parkinson's Drugs
Parkinsons Characteristics
Decreased Dopamine
Increased Acetylcholine
Drug Names
BALSA Acronym
Bromocriptine
Amantadine
Levodopa
Selegiline
Antimuscarinics
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2 mins
Heparin (Unfractionated)
Mechanism of Action
Suppresses Coagulation
Indications
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Pulmonary Embolism
Side Effects
Hemorrhage
Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT)
Considerations
Monitor aPTT
Preferred (Safe) During Pregnancy
Antidote
Protamine Sulfate
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2 mins
Warfarin (Coumadin)
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Clotting Factors
Indications
Atrial Fibrillation
Venous Thrombosis
Pulmonary Embolism
Assessment
PT/INR Levels
Observe for Bleeding
Contraindications
Pregnancy
Nursing Considerations
Vitamin K and Fresh Frozen Plasma
Prolonged Therapeutic Onset
Maintain Same Diet
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2 mins

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