Sarah Shared "hhd2" - 17 Picmonics

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hhd2

Norovirus
Characteristics
Calicivirus
RNA Virus
Non-enveloped
Icosahedral
SS Positive Linear
Symptoms
Acute Gastroenteritis
Treatment
Supportive Therapy
Considerations
Often found in Cruise Ships
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1 min
Rotavirus
Characteristics
Reovirus
Non-enveloped
Double-Stranded
RNA Virus
Linear
11 Segments
Triple Icosahedral Capsid
Most Common Cause of Diarrhea Worldwide
Villous Atrophy
Winter Months
Day Care Centers
Treatment
Oral Rehydration
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2 mins
Salmonella Overview
Pathophysiology
Gram-Negative Rod
Oxidase Negative
Non Lactose Fermenter
White on Macconkey Agar
H2S Producing
Flagella
Invades GI Tract
Peyer's Patches
Considerations
Osteomyelitis in Sickle Cell Patients
Reactive Arthritis
Antibiotics Prolong Fecal Excretion
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2 mins
Salmonella Typhi
Characteristics
Colonizes Gallbladder
Monocytic Immune Response
Symptoms
Typhoid Fever
Abdominal Pain
Rose Spots on Abdomen
Constipation Followed by Diarrhea
Treatments
Ceftriaxone
Fluoroquinolones
Considerations
Oral Vaccine - Live
IM Vaccine - Capsular Polysaccharide
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2 mins
Salmonella Enterica Spp.
Characteristics
Animal and Human Reservoir
Poultry and Eggs
Turtles
PMN Immune Response
Symptoms
Gastroenteritis
Diarrhea
Possibly Bloody
Treatments
No Antibiotics
No Vaccine Available
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2 mins
Listeria Monocytogenes Characteristics
Characteristics
Gram Positive
Bacillus
Intracellular
Survives in Cold Temperature
Actin Rocket
Tumbling Motility
Catalase-Positive
Beta-Hemolytic
Only Gram-Positive with Endotoxin-Like Structure
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2 mins
Listeria Monocytogenes Disease
Signs and Symptoms
Soft Cheese
Pregnant Women Have Flu-Like Symptoms
Pregnant Women Have GI Symptoms
Granulomatosis Infantiseptica
Spontaneous Abortion
Meningitis
Monocytes in CSF
Treatment
Ampicillin
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2 mins
Entamoeba histolytica
Pathophysiology
Protozoa
Amebiasis
Ingestion of Cysts in Food and Water
Signs and Symptoms
Bloody Diarrhea
Flask-Shaped Ulcer
Liver Abscess
Anchovy Paste
RUQ Pain
Diagnosis
RBCs in Cytoplasm of Trophozoite
Cyst With Four Nuclei
Treatment
Metronidazole
Iodoquinol
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3 mins
Metronidazole
Mechanism of Action
Bactericidal
Forms Free Radical Toxic Metabolites
Damages DNA
Indications
Giardia lamblia
Entamoeba Histolytica
Trichomonas
Gardnerella
Anaerobes
Side Effects
Metallic taste
Disulfiram like Reaction with Alcohol
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2 mins
Toxoplasma gondii
Characteristics
Protozoa
Cysts in meat or cat feces
Signs and Symptoms
Brain Abscess in HIV Patients
Ring-enhancing brain lesions
Crosses placenta in pregnant women
Congenital TORCH infection
Treatment
Pyrimethamine
Sulfadiazine
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2 mins
Toxoplasma gondii TORCH
Signs and Symptoms
Congenital TORCH Infection
Mom Usually Asymptomatic
Rarely Lymphadenopathy
Nonspecific TORCH Signs
Intrauterine Growth Retardation
Hepatosplenomegaly
Deafness
Chorioretinitis
Hydrocephalus
Diagnosis
Calcifications
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1 min
Cryptosporidium
Characteristics
Protozoa
Ingestion of Oocysts in Food or Water
Acid Fast Cysts
Signs and Symptoms
Outbreaks of Diarrhea from Contaminated Water Supply
Mild Disease in Non-immunocompromised
Severe Diarrhea in AIDS
Treatment
Nitazoxanide for Immunocompetent
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2 mins
Schistosoma
Pathophysiology
Trematode (Fluke)
Snail-infested Water
Intense Immune Response
Intestinal Disease
Hepatosplenic Granuloma
Squamous Cell Cancer of the Bladder
Diagnosis
Parasitic Antigens via ELISA
Treatment
Praziquantel
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2 mins
Strongyloides Stercoralis
Pathophysiology
Nematode (Roundworm)
Larvae in Soil Penetrate Skin
Uncomplicated Disease
GI Distress
Loffler's Syndrome
Dermatitis
Disseminated Disease
Immunosuppressed
Treatment
Ivermectin
Albendazole
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2 mins
Borrelia burgdorferi
Characteristics
Lyme Disease
Spirochete
Dark-field Microscopy
Giemsa Stain
Silver Stain
White-footed Mouse
Ixodes Tick
Babesia
Anaplasmosis
Signs & Symptoms
Flu-like Symptoms
Erythema Migrans
Bulls Eye Rash
Bilateral Bell's Palsy
Conduction Defects
Arthropathy
Treatments
Doxycycline
Ceftriaxone
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3 mins
Babesia
Characteristics
Protozoa
Ixodes Tick
Same vector as Borrelia
Northeastern US
Asplenia
Signs and Symptoms
Fever
Hemolytic Anemia
Diagnosis
Blood Smear
Maltese Cross
Treatments
Atovaquone
Azithromycin
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3 mins
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Rickettsia rickettsii
Dermacentor Wood Tick
Endemic to East Coast
Fever
Headache
Rash Starts on Wrist and Ankle
Migrates towards trunk
Thrombocytopenia
Hyponatremia
Elevated liver enzymes
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59 secs

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