Andrew Shared "Hormones & Digestion" - 28 Picmonics

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Hormones & Digestion

Azathioprine (Imuran)
Mechanism
Antimetabolite
Prodrug of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)
Inhibits Synthesis of Nucleic Acids
Indications
Autoimmune Disorders
Kidney Transplantation
Side Effects
Myelosuppression
Increased Toxicity with Allopurinol Use
Pancreatitis
Malignancy
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3 mins
Vibrio Cholera Characteristics
Gram-Negative
Bacilli
Glucose fermenting
Non-lactose fermenting
Oxidase positive
Comma Shaped
Thrives in alkaline environment
Crustaceans
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1 min
Vibrio Cholera Disease
ADP ribosylating AB toxin
Turn Gs on causing increase in cAMP
Secretion of Cl
Blocks reabsorption of Na
Rice water diarrhea
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1 min
Salmonella Enterica Spp.
Characteristics
Animal and Human Reservoir
Poultry and Eggs
Turtles
PMN Immune Response
Symptoms
Gastroenteritis
Diarrhea
Possibly Bloody
Treatments
No Antibiotics
No Vaccine Available
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2 mins
Campylobacter Jejuni
Characteristics
Gram-Negative
Bacillus
Flagella
Curved
Corkscrew Appearance
Oxidase-Positive
Grows Well at 42 Degrees
Undercooked Poultry
Unpasteurized Milk
Puppies with Diarrhea
Signs and Symptoms
Bloody Diarrhea
Guillain-Barre syndrome
Reiter's Syndrome or Reactive Arthritis
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3 mins
E. coli Overview
Characteristics
Gram-Negative
Bacillus
Purple Colony with Metallic Green Sheen
Lactose-Fermenting
Pink on MacConkey Agar
Disease
Diarrhea
Lipid A Septic Shock
P Pili Pyelonephritis and Cystitis
K Capsule Neonatal Meningitis
K Capsule Pneumonia
H Antigen Flagella
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2 mins
EHEC (Enterohemorrhagic E. Coli)
Characteristics
O157:H7
Non-Sorbitol Fermenting
Hamburger Meat
Produces Shiga-Like Toxin
Gram-Negative
Lysogeny
Inactivates 60 S ribosome
Disease
Bloody Diarrhea
Hemolytic Anemia
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
Acute Renal Failure
Thrombocytopenia
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2 mins
Shigella
Characteristics
Gram-Negative
Bacilli
Non Lactose Fermenting
White on Macconkey Agar
Oxidase Negative
Non H2S Producing
Day Care Centers
High Virulence
Replicates Intracellularly
Actin Rocket
Signs and Symptoms
Bloody Diarrhea
Shiga Toxin
Inhibits 60S Ribosome
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
Hemolytic Anemia
Thrombocytopenia
Kidney Failure
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3 mins
Giardia lamblia
Characteristics
Protozoa
Ingestion of Cysts
Seen in Campers
Daycare Centers
Mental Hospitals
Infects Small Intestine
Signs and Symptoms
Bloating
Flatulence
Fatty Diarrhea
Diagnosis
Crescent-shaped Protozoa Adjacent to Epithelial Brush Border
Predisposed if Low IgA
Treatment
Metronidazole
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3 mins
Cryptosporidium
Characteristics
Protozoa
Ingestion of Oocysts in Food or Water
Acid Fast Cysts
Signs and Symptoms
Outbreaks of Diarrhea from Contaminated Water Supply
Mild Disease in Non-immunocompromised
Severe Diarrhea in AIDS
Treatment
Nitazoxanide for Immunocompetent
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2 mins
Schistosoma
Pathophysiology
Trematode (Fluke)
Snail-infested Water
Intense Immune Response
Intestinal Disease
Hepatosplenic Granuloma
Squamous Cell Cancer of the Bladder
Diagnosis
Parasitic Antigens via ELISA
Treatment
Praziquantel
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2 mins
Taenia Solium
Pathophysiology
Cestode (Tapeworm)
Taeniasis
Ingestion of Larvae in Undercooked Pork
Asymptomatic, in Bowels
Cysticercosis
Ingestion of Cestode Eggs
Skin, CNS and Muscles
Treatment
Albendazole
Praziquantel
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1 min
Entamoeba histolytica
Pathophysiology
Protozoa
Amebiasis
Ingestion of Cysts in Food and Water
Signs and Symptoms
Bloody Diarrhea
Flask-Shaped Ulcer
Liver Abscess
Anchovy Paste
RUQ Pain
Diagnosis
RBCs in Cytoplasm of Trophozoite
Cyst With Four Nuclei
Treatment
Metronidazole
Iodoquinol
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3 mins
Strongyloides Stercoralis
Pathophysiology
Nematode (Roundworm)
Larvae in Soil Penetrate Skin
Uncomplicated Disease
GI Distress
Loffler's Syndrome
Dermatitis
Disseminated Disease
Immunosuppressed
Treatment
Ivermectin
Albendazole
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2 mins
Pinworm (Enterobius Vermicularis)
Pathophysiology
Nematode (Roundworm)
Ingestion of Eggs
Intestinal Infection
Anal Pruritus
Diagnosis
Scotch Tape Test
Treatment
Albendazole
Pyrantel Pamoate
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2 mins
Diphyllobothrium Latum
Pathophysiology
Cestode (Tapeworm)
Ingestion of Larvae from Raw Fish
Competes for Vitamin B12
Megaloblastic Anemia
Treatment
Praziquantel
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1 min
Clonorchis Sinensis
Pathophysiology
Trematode (Fluke)
Undercooked Fish
Biliary Tract Inflammation
Pigmented Gallstones
Associated with Cholangiocarcinoma
Treatment
Praziquantel
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1 min
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Diagnosis and Labs
Diagnosis
Blood glucose Increased > 250 mg/dL
Anion gap metabolic acidosis
Decreased pH < 7.3
Decreased serum bicarbonate < 18
Plasma ketones
Other Labs
Hyperkalemia
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1 min
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Signs and Symptoms
Kussmaul respirations
Dehydration
Abdominal Pain
Nausea/vomiting
Psychosis
Fruity breath Odor
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1 min
Niemann-Pick Disease
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Sphingomyelinase Deficiency
More Common in Ashkenazi Jewish Population
Signs and Symptoms
Cherry Red Spot on Macula
Hepatosplenomegaly
Neurodegeneration
Diagnosis
Foam Cells
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1 min

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