Amy Shared "316 unit 2 " - 20 Picmonics

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316 unit 2

Inflammatory Response
Pathogens Infect Tissue
Mast Cells Release Histamine
Histamine Dilates and Increases Capillary Permeability
Macrophages Engulf Pathogens
Macrophage Signals Cells With Cytokines
Responding Neutrophils Cross Capillary Wall
B And T Lymphocytes Arrive At Injury Site
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2 mins
Immune System Tissues
Characteristics
Bone Marrow
B Cells and T Cells Formed
B Cells Mature
Thymus
T Cells Tested For Self-Response
T Cells Mature
Lymph Nodes
Mature B Cells and T Cells Monitor Lymph For Pathogens
Spleen
Mature B Cells and T Cells Monitor Blood For Pathogens
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1 min
Innate Immunity Cellular Response
Characteristics
Natural Killer Lymphocytes Attack Abnormal Cells
Neutrophils in Blood
Infected Cells Release Interferon
Complement Proteins Lyse Pathogens/Infected Cells
Dendritic Cells in Tissue
Macrophages in Tissue
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2 mins
Innate Immunity Barriers
Skin Protects Against Pathogens
Normal Flora Outcompete Pathogens
Lysozyme in Saliva, Tears, and Mucus
Mucous Traps Pathogens
Cilia Remove Mucus
Acid and Digestive Enzymes in the Stomach Kill Pathogens
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2 mins
Cell-mediated Adaptive Immune Response
Characteristics
Macrophages and Dendritic Cells Present Antigens
T Cell Develops Antigen Specificity
Regulatory T Cells Suppress Response
Memory T Cells Cause Faster Secondary Response
Cytotoxic T Cells Lyse Infected Cells
Infected Cells Present Antigen On Surface
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2 mins
Humoral Adaptive Immunity
Characteristics
B Cell Binds Free Floating Antigen
B Cell Presents Antigen to Helper T Cell
Helper T Cells Help B Cells Develop Antigen Specificity
Plasma B Cells Secrete Antibodies
Memory B Cells Cause Faster Secondary Response
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2 mins
Fever
Flushed skin, warm to touch
Chills
Sweating
Change in LOC
Provide adequate fluids
Monitor Electrolytes and Fluid
Monitor vital signs, esp temperature
Remove excess clothing and blankets
Sponge bath with tepid water
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2 mins
Hypoxia (Early Symptoms)
Diaphoresis
Restlessness
Tachypnea
Dyspnea on Exertion
Tachycardia
Hypertension
Arrhythmias
Decreased Urine Output
Unexplained Fatigue
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1 min
Hypoxia (Late Symptoms)
Cyanosis
Cool, Clammy Skin
Use of Accessory Muscles
Retractions
Hypotension
Arrhythmias
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2 mins
Types of Wound Healing
Types of Wounds
Acute
Chronic
Healing Process
Primary Intention
Approximated Edges
Secondary Intention
Edges Not Approximated
Tertiary Intention
Delayed Closure due to Infection and Necrosis
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2 mins
NSAIDs
Indications
Anti-inflammatory
Analgesic
Fever
Closure of PDA
Mechanism of Action
Reversible Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2
Block Prostaglandin Synthesis
Side Effects
Interstitial Nephritis
Gastric Ulcer
Renal Ischemia
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1 min
Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid)
Mechanism
Inhibits Platelet Aggregation
NSAID
Indications
Thrombotic Event Prevention
General Pain
Inflammatory Conditions
Fever
Side Effects
Pancytopenia
GI Ulcers
Bleeding
Considerations
Withhold Before Surgery 7-10 Days
Reye's Syndrome
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2 mins
Aspirin Poisoning (Salicylism) Assessment
Early Symptoms
Nausea and Vomiting
Tinnitus
Confusion
Hyperventilation
Respiratory Alkalosis
Late Symptoms
Metabolic Acidosis
Coma
Hyperthermia
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1 min
Reye's Syndrome
Cause
Aspirin (Salicylates) to Treat Viral Illness (In Children)
Assessment
Cerebral Edema
Lethargy (Decreased LOC)
Vomiting
Liver Failure
Interventions
Monitor for Increased ICP
Mannitol (Osmitrol)
Considerations
No Aspirin for Children
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2 mins
Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)
Mechanisms
NSAID
COX Inhibitor
Indications
General Pain
Fever
Inflammatory Conditions
Side Effects
GI Ulcers
Nephrotoxicity
Rash
Considerations
Avoid with Alcohol
Risk of Thrombotic Event
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2 mins
Acetaminophen
Indications
Fever
Pain
Mechanism of Action
Reversibly inhibits COX
Acts primarily in CNS
Side Effect
Hepatic Necrosis
N-acetylcysteine Antidote
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51 secs
Acetaminophen Antidote
Antidote
N-Acetylcysteine
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33 secs
Celecoxib
Indications
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Osteoarthritis
Pain
Mechanism of Action
NSAID
Selectively Inhibits COX-2
Side Effects
Sulfa Allergy
Increased Risk of Thrombosis
GI Bleed
Contraindication
Pregnancy > 30 Weeks
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1 min
Vincristine (Oncovin)
Mechanism
Vinca Alkaloid
Inhibits Microtubules
Indications
Leukemias
Lymphomas
Side Effects
Peripheral Neuropathy
Paralytic Ileus
Considerations
Vesicant
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2 mins
Tamoxifen
Mechanism of Action
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM)
Antagonist on Breast Tissue
Indications
ER-positive Breast Cancer
Side Effects
Decreased Risk of Osteoporosis
Increased Risk of Endometrial Cancer
Increased Risk of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)
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1 min

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