Karli Shared "EXAM 4" - 27 Picmonics

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EXAM 4

Sickle Cell Anemia Assessment
Cause/Mechanism
Hemoglobin S (Genetic Defect)
Sickle Shaped RBCs
Assessment
Jaundice
Vaso Occlusive Crisis
Fever
Priapism
Severe Pain
Considerations
Prominent in African Americans
May be Asymptomatic
Increased Risk of Infection
2 mins
Sickle Cell Anemia Interventions
Interventions
Increase Hydration
Analgesics
Oxygen
Warm Compress
Bone Marrow Transplant
Hydroxyurea
Considerations
Avoid High Altitudes
Prophylactic Antibiotics
Avoid Strenuous Exercise
Vaccines
3 mins
Hemophilia
Cause/Mechanism
Genetic Mutation
Assessment
Prolonged Bleeding
Pain
Hemarthrosis
Interventions
Clotting Factor Replacement Therapy
DDAVP (Desmopressin Acetate)
Antifibrinolytic Therapy
Analgesics
Considerations
Genetic Counseling
Prevent Injury
3 mins
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Continuous
Machine like murmur
Often Due to Congenital Rubella
Prematurity
1 min
Tetralogy of Fallot
Blue Baby Syndrome (Cyanosis)
Crying or Feeding
PROVe
Pulmonary Stenosis
Right Ventricular Hypertrophy
Overriding Aorta
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
Diagnosis and Treatment
Boot-Shaped Heart
Squatting for Tet Spells
Surgery
2 mins
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
Features
Blue Baby Syndrome
Mechanism
PROVe Acronym
Pulmonary Infundibular Stenosis
Right Ventricular Hypertrophy
Overriding Aorta
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
Diagnosis and Treatment
Boot-Shaped Heart
Squatting for Tet Spells
Surgery
2 mins
Kawasaki Disease
Cause
Acute Vasculitis
Assessment
Acute Phase
High Fever
Conjunctivitis
Strawberry-Red Tongue and Mucosa
Erythema and Edema of Hands and Feet
Subacute Phase
Desquamative Skin Rash
Interventions
Aspirin
Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG)
Antipyretics
Considerations
Coronary Aneurysm
Children < 5 Years old
2 mins
Rheumatic Fever Assessment
Mechanism
Aschoff Bodies
Signs and Symptoms - Major
Carditis
Subcutaneous Nodules
Polyarthritis
Chorea
Erythema Marginatum
Signs and Symptoms - Minor
Fever
Arthralgia
Elevated ESR and C-reactive Protein
Complications
Rheumatic Heart Disease
2 mins
Rheumatic Fever Interventions
Antibiotics
Prophylactic Treatment
Relieve Joint Pain
Prevent Cardiac Complications
Educate Chorea is Temporary
1 min
Endocarditis Assessment
Infection of Inner Layer and Valves
Assessment
Fever
Fatigue
New or Changed Murmurs
Roth's Spots
Splinter Hemorrhages
Janeway Lesions
Osler's Nodes
Considerations
Heart Failure
Embolization
2 mins
Endocarditis Interventions
Interventions
IV Antibiotics
4-6 Weeks
Anticoagulants
Good Hygiene
Considerations
Closely Monitor
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Dental Procedures
Invasive Procedures
1 min
Myocardial Infarction Assessment
Assessment
Substernal Chest Pain
Crushing or Dull Sensation
Arm, Jaw, and Neck
> 20 Minutes
Unrelieved by Nitro
Palpitations
Diaphoresis
Fear of Impending Doom
Nausea and Vomiting
Shortness of Breath
Considerations
Monitor for Arrhythmias
2 mins
Myocardial Infarction Interventions
MONA
Morphine
Oxygen
Nitrates
Aspirin
Thrombolytics (tPA)
Invasive Procedures
Cardiac Catheterization
Stent Placement
Angioplasty
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)
Considerations
Decrease Modifiable Risk Factors
Resuming Activity (Physical, Sexual)
2 mins
Cardiac Catheterization
Considerations
Fluttering Sensation
Contrast Media
NPO 6-12 Hours
After Procedure
Bed Rest
Assess Circulation
Assess for Bleeding
Monitor Vital Signs
2 mins
Diabetes Education
Self-Monitoring (Blood Glucose)
SubQ Injection Technique
Lifestyle Changes
Symptoms of Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia
Sick Day Care
Foot Care
Exercise Therapy
Medication
1 min
Hypoglycemia Intervention
Interventions
Mild to Moderate Hypoglycemia
Simple Carbohydrate (Oral Dextrose, Fruit Juice, Candies)
Complex Carbohydrate (Whole Grains, Vegetables)
Severe Hypoglycemia or Unconscious
50% Dextrose
Glucagon
Considerations
Monitor Blood Glucose Q 10-15 Minutes
Give Small Meal After Intervention
Patient Education
Hypoglycemia Prevention
Encourage Self-Monitoring
3 mins
Hypoglycemia Assessment
Mechanism
Too much insulin
Decreased glucose
Assessment
< 70 mg/dL
Change in LOC
Lethargic
Confusion and Irritability
Tremors
Diaphoresis
Tachycardia
Vision Changes
Weakness
Seizures
2 mins
Insulin
Rapid Acting
Insulin Lispro (Humalog)
Insulin Aspart (Novolog)
Insulin Glulisine (Apidra)
Short Acting
Regular Insulin (Humulin R)
Intermediate Acting
Isophane NPH (Humulin N)
Long Acting
Detemir (Levemir)
Glargine (Lantus)
2 mins
Diabetes Interventions
Early Diagnosis
Insulin
Oral Hypoglycemics
Glucose Monitoring
Routine Exercise
Diabetic Diet
Monitor for Complications
Insulin Therapy
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
2 mins
Hyperglycemia
Mechanism
Insulin Resistance
Too little insulin/medication
Infection/Illness
Corticosteroids
Assessment
Elevated Blood Glucose
Polyphagia
Polydipsia
Polyuria
Hypotension
Fatigue/Drowsiness
1 min

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