daniel Shared "IM" - 384 Picmonics

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IM

Ampicillin and Amoxicillin
Mechanism
Aminopenicillin
Broad Spectrum Penicillin
Indications
Gram-Positive and Some Gram-Negative Infections
Side Effects
Rash
Diarrhea
Considerations
No Effect Against Staph Aureus
Often combined with Beta Lactamase Inhibitor
Allergic Reaction
2 mins
1st Generation Cephalosporin
Drug Names
Cefazolin
Cephalexin
Indications (PEcK Mnemonic)
Proteus mirabilis
E. coli
Klebsiella
Gram-Positive Cocci
1 min
2nd Generation Cephalosporin
Drug Names
Cefoxitin
Cefaclor
Cefuroxime
Indications (PEcK HENS Mnemonic)
Proteus mirabilis
E. coli
Klebsiella
Gram-Positive Cocci
Haemophilus influenzae
Enterobacter
Neisseria
Serratia marcescens
2 mins
5th Generation Cephalosporin
Mechanism
Beta-Lactam
Indications
Resistant Bacteria
Broad Spectrum Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative
Drugs
Ceftobiprole
Has Pseudomonas Coverage
Ceftaroline
No Pseudomonas Coverage
1 min
Aminoglycosides
Drug Names
Gentamicin
Neomycin for Bowel Surgery Prep
Amikacin
Tobramycin
Streptomycin
Mechanism of Action
Bactericidal
Inhibit Formation of Initiation Complex
Cause Misreading of mRNA
Require O2 for Uptake
Resistance
Resistance by Transferase Enzymes
Acetylation
Phosphorylation
Adenylation
Indications
Gram-Negative Rod Infections
Synergistic with B-Lactam Antibiotics
Side Effects
Nephrotoxicity Especially When Used with Cephalosporins
Ototoxicity Especially When Used with Loop Diuretics
Teratogen
5 mins
Aztreonam
Monobactam
Resistant to beta lactamases
Binds to penicillin binding protein (PBP)
Inhibit cell wall synthesis
No Activity on Gram-Positives or Anaerobes
Gram-Negative Rods
Non allergenic to penicillin
Synergistic with aminoglycosides
2 mins
Fluoroquinolones Antibiotics
-floxacin
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Topoisomerase II & IV
Bactericidal
Indications
Gram-negative Rods
Pneumonia
Gastrointestinal Infections
Urinary Tract Infection
Genital Infections
Drugs
Levofloxacin
Ciprofloxacin
Has Pseudomonas Coverage
Considerations
Avoid Polyvalent Cations
3 mins
Fluoroquinolones Toxicities
Diarrhea
Skin Rash
Headache
Tendon Rupture in Adults
Myalgias in Kids
Damage to Cartilage
Teratogen
QT Prolongation
1 min
Tetracycline Drug Names and Indications
Drug Names
Demeclocycline
Minocycline
Doxycycline
Fecally Eliminated
Can be Used in Renal Failure
Indications
Antidiuretic Hormone Antagonist
Chlamydia
Rickettsia
Borrelia burgdorferi
Helicobacter Pylori
Mycoplasma Pneumonia
3 mins
Antipseudomonal Penicillins
Drugs
Ticarcillin
Carbenicillin
Piperacillin
Mechanism of Action
Same Mechanism as Penicillin
Indications
Extended Spectrum
Pseudomonas and Gram-Negative Rods
Considerations
Combine with Beta Lactamase Inhibitor
Clavulanic Acid
Tazobactam
Hypersensitivity Reactions
2 mins
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Characteristics
Frontal Lobe
Parietal Lobe
Temporal Lobe
Occipital Lobe
Medulla Oblongata
Cerebellum
Pons
Spinal Cord
Dorsal Root Ganglia
Grey Matter
White Matter
2 mins
Common Causes of Meningitis: Adolescent and Adult (6 - 60 Years Old)
Enteroviruses
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
Neisseria meningitidis (#1 Cause in Teens)
Streptococcus pneumoniae
1 min
Common Causes of Meningitis: Children (6 Months - 6 Years)
Enteroviruses
Neisseria meningitidis
Haemophilus influenzae Type B
Streptococcus pneumoniae
2 mins
Common Causes of Meningitis: Elderly (60+ Years Old)
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Gram-Negative Rods
Listeria Monocytogenes
56 secs
Common Causes of Meningitis: Newborn (0-6 Months)
Group B Streptococci
E. coli
Listeria monocytogenes
1 min
Haemophilus Influenzae Disease
Disease
Pneumonia
Cherry Red Epiglottitis
Meningitis
Otitis Media
COPD Exacerbation
Thumbprint Sign (on X-ray)
Treatment
Rifampin Prophylaxis
Ceftriaxone
2 mins
Listeria Monocytogenes Characteristics
Characteristics
Gram Positive
Bacillus
Intracellular
Survives in Cold Temperature
Actin Rocket
Tumbling Motility
Catalase-Positive
Beta-Hemolytic
Only Gram-Positive with Endotoxin-Like Structure
2 mins
CSF Lab Values: Normal
Pressure: < 20 cm H2O
Color/Appearance: Clear or Colorless
Proteins: < 40 mg/dL
Lactate Dehydrogenase: 10% of Serum Level
Cells: 0-5 Small Lymphocytes
Glucose: 40-70 mg/dL
2 mins
Rickettsia
Need CoA and NAD
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Typhus
Ehrlichiosis
Q fever
Arthropod vector
Fever
Headache
Rash
Weil-Felix reaction
Treatment doxycycline
1 min
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Rickettsia rickettsii
Dermacentor Wood Tick
Endemic to East Coast
Fever
Headache
Rash Starts on Wrist and Ankle
Migrates towards trunk
Thrombocytopenia
Hyponatremia
Elevated liver enzymes
59 secs

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