Sam Shared "GI & Heme/Onc (All)" - 106 Picmonics

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GI & Heme/Onc (All)

Stomach Digestion
Characteristics
Chief Cells Secrete Pepsinogen
Pepsinogen Turned to Pepsin By H+
Protein Breakdown Begins
Mucous Cells Secrete Mucus and Bicarbonate
G Cells Secrete Gastrin
Gastrin Stimulates Parietal Cell HCl Release
Parietal Cells Secrete Intrinsic Factor
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2 mins
Small Intestine Absorption
Characteristics
Carbohydrates Undergo Active Transport
Amino Acids Undergo Active Transport
Small Lipids Undergo Passive Diffusion
Epithelial Cells
Intestinal Capillaries
Hepatic Portal Transports Nutrients
Liver
Large Lipids Transported as Chylomicrons
Lacteals Transport Chylomicrons
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2 mins
Large Intestine
Characteristics
Colon
Electrolyte Reabsorption
Water Reabsorption
Microflora Produce Vitamins
Rectum Stores Feces
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1 min
GI Absorption
Stomach
Alcohol
Duodenum
Iron
Jejunum
Folate
Terminal Ileum
Vitamin B12
Bile Resorption
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1 min
Plummer-Vinson Syndrome
Triad of Symptoms
Dysphagia
Esophageal Webs
Glossitis
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Association
Squamous Cell Cancer of Esophagus
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1 min
Barrett's Esophagus
Histological findings
Metaplasia in Lower Esophagus
Columnar Epithelium
Associated Pathologies
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Esophagitis
Esophageal Ulcers
Increased Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma
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1 min
Boerhaave Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Esophageal Rupture
Increased Esophageal Pressure while Vomiting
Lower 1/3 of Esophagus
Signs and Symptoms
Chest Pain
Odynophagia
Subcutaneous Emphysema
Management
Shock
Surgical Emergency
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2 mins
Acute Gastritis
Erosive
Disruption of Mucosal Barrier
Caused by Stress
NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs)
Alcohol
Uremia
Burns
Curling's Ulcer
Brain Injury
Cushing Ulcer
Increase H+ Production
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1 min
Chronic Gastritis
Type A
Type A
Fundus and Body
Autoimmune
Autoantibodies to Parietal Cells
Pernicious Anemia
Achlorhydria
Type B
Type B
Most Common Type
Helicobacter pylori
Antrum
Increased Risk of MALT Lymphoma
Associations
HIV/AIDS
Crohn's Disease
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3 mins
Stomach Cancer
Adenocarcinoma
Intestinal Type
Intestinal Type
Smoked Foods Containing Nitrosamines
Achlorhydria
Type A Blood
Helicobacter pylori
Diffuse Type
Diffuse Type
Signet Ring Cells
Linitis Plastica (Leather Bottle Stomach)
Assessment
Acanthosis Nigricans
Left Supraclavicular Lymph Node
Virchow's Node
Subcutaneous Periumbilical Mets
Sister Mary Joseph's Nodule
Complications
Bilateral mets to ovaries
Krukenberg's tumor
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3 mins
Whipple's Disease
Tropheryma Whipplei
Gram-Positive
Middle-aged, Caucasian men and Farmers
Malabsorption
Mesenteric Nodes
Arthralgias
Cardiac Symptoms
Neurologic Symptoms
PAS-positive Foamy Macrophages
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1 min
Crohn's Disease Characteristics
Terminal Ileum and Colon
Rectal Sparing
Transmural Inflammation
Granulomas
Skip Lesions
Cobblestone Mucosa
Fissures
Fistulas
Perianal Disease
Creeping Fat
Lymphoid Aggregates
String Sign on Barium Swallow
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2 mins
Crohn's Symptoms and Associations
Diarrhea
Malabsorption
Bile-Wasting
Pigment Gallstones
Oxalate Kidney Stones
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Erythema Nodosum
Uveitis
Migratory Polyarthritis
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2 mins
Ulcerative Colitis Associations
Associations
Toxic Megacolon
Colorectal Carcinoma
Anterior Uveitis
Pyoderma Gangrenosum
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
P-ANCA
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1 min
Ulcerative Colitis Characteristics
Autoimmune
Mucosal and Submucosal Only
Rectal Involvement
Stepwise Lesions
Friable Pseudopolyp
Crypt Abscess
Loss of Haustra
Lead Pipe Appearance
Bloody Diarrhea
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2 mins
Crohn's Disease Characteristics (DEMO)
Granulomas
Skip Lesions
Cobblestone Mucosa
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46 secs
Appendicitis
Mechanism and Characteristics
Fecalith leading to obstruction and infection
Most commonly affects teenagers
Presentation
Initial peri-umbilical visceral pain
Subsequent somatic right lower quadrant pain
Diagnosis
Rebound tenderness
Positive psoas sign
Pain at McBurney's point
Leukocytosis
Fever
Treatment
Appendectomy
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1 min
Meckel's Diverticulum
Pathophysiology
True Diverticulum
Vitelline Duct
Yolk Stalk
Contain Ectopic Tissue
Pancreatic And Gastric Mucosa
Signs and Symptoms
Hemorrhage
Intussusceptions
Volvulus
Diagnosis
2 Feet From Ileocecal Valve
2 Inches Long
2% Population
First 2 Years Of Life
Pertechnetate T99
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2 mins
Hirschsprung Disease
Failure of Neuronal Crest Cell Migration
Involves Rectum
Lack of Auerbach and Meissner Plexus
Chronic Constipation
Failure to Pass Meconium
Congenital Megacolon
Increased Risk with Down Syndrome
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2 mins
Intussusception
Assessment
Episodic Abdominal Pain
Diarrhea
Sausage-Shaped Mass
Red Currant Jelly Stools
Considerations
Air or Hydrostatic Enema
Surgical Reduction
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2 mins

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