Carlos Shared "11 Cardio" - 97 Picmonics

With Picmonic, facts become pictures. We've taken what the science shows - image mnemonics work - but we've boosted the effectiveness by building and associating memorable characters, interesting audio stories, and built-in quizzing. Whether you're studying for your classes or getting ready for a big exam, we're here to help.

11 Cardio

Heart Embryology
Primitive atrium (PA): Trabeculated part of left and right atria
Primitive ventricle (PV): Trabeculated part of left and right ventricles
Right horn of sinus venosus (RHSV): Smooth part of right atrium (sinus venarum)
Primitive pulmonary vein (PV): Smooth part of left atrium
Bulbus cordis (BC): Smooth parts (outflow tract) of left and right ventricles
Left horn of sinus venosus (LHSV): Coronary sinus
Truncus arteriosus (TA): Ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk
Right common cardinal vein (RCCV) and right anterior cardinal vein (RACV): Superior vena cava
picmonic thumbnail
Fetal Erythropoiesis
YOLK SAC
3–8 weeks
Liver
6 weeks–birth
Spleen
10–28 weeks
Bone marrow
18 weeks to adult
picmonic thumbnail
Fetal Circulation
Placenta
Umbilical Vein
Ductus Venosus
Right Atrium
Foramen Ovale
Left Atrium
Aorta
Right Ventricle
Ductus Arteriosus
Umbilical Arteries
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Postnatal Circulation
Infant Breathes
Decreased Pressure in Pulmonary Vasculature
Decreased Right Heart Pressure
Increased Left Atrial Pressure
Closes Foramen Ovale
Increased O2
Decreased Prostaglandins
Closed Ductus Arteriosus
Pharmacologic Intervention of Ductus Arteriosus
Open with Prostaglandins
Closed with Indomethacin
picmonic thumbnail
3 mins
Coronary Arteries
Aortic Root
Right Coronary Artery (RCA)
Right (Acute) Marginal Artery
Posterior Descending Artery (PDA)
Left Coronary Artery (LCA)
Left Anterior Descending (LAD) Artery
Circumflex Artery
Left Marginal Artery
picmonic thumbnail
1 min
Cardiac Cycle - Systole
Characteristics
AV Node
AV Node Conducts Signal to Bundle of His
Bundle of His Signals Purkinje Fibers to Contract Ventricles
Tricuspid Valve Closes
Pulmonary Valve Opens
Mitral Valve Closes
Aortic Valve Opens
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Cardiac Cycle - Diastole
Characteristics
Aortic Valve Closes
Pulmonary Valve Closes
Ventricles Relax
Mitral Valve Opens
Tricuspid Valve Opens
Ventricles Fill
Sinoatrial (SA) Node Fires
Atrial Contraction
picmonic thumbnail
3 mins
High Blood Pressure Response
Characteristics
Atria Release Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
Vasodilation
Antagonizes Aldosterone
Na+ and Water Excreted
picmonic thumbnail
1 min
Low Blood Pressure Response
Characteristics
Posterior Pituitary Releases Vasopressin
Vasoconstriction
Adrenal Cortex Releases Aldosterone
Increased Na+ and H2O Reabsorption
picmonic thumbnail
1 min
Inotropy Curve
Changes in contractility lead to altered CO for a given RA pressure (preload)
Inotropy is related to the amount of intracellular Calcium (Ca 2+)
Examples
Catecholamines (SNS) and Digoxin increase Calcium, therefore increase Inotropy
Uncompensated HF (RAAS, SNS and Frank no longer work)and narcotic overdosed (decreased pulmonary center in medulla decreases HR) decrease Inotropy
picmonic thumbnail
Venous return
VR = Blood returning from the tissues that is filling up the RA
Anything that increases Venous Pressure (VP) or decreases Right Atrium Pressure (RAP) leads to increases Venous Return (VR)
Changes in circulating volume or venous tone lead to altered RA pressure for a given CO.
Mean systemic pressure (x-intercept) changes with volume/venous tone.
Mean systemic pressure (x-intercept) is the pressure that would force blood back into the RA if the heart was not beating (only dependent in the amount of blood creating pressure in the arteriole and veous circulation)
EXAMPLES
IV Fluids and Sympathetic activity increase VR
Acute hemorrhage and spinal anesthesia decrease VR
picmonic thumbnail
Total Peripheral Resistance (TPR)
At a given mean systemic pressure (x-intercept) and RA pressure, changes in TPR leads to altered CO.
Arterioles are responsible for TPR
EXAMPLES
Vasopressors (like Norepinephrine) increase resistance, causing the heart to have more trouble pushing out blood
Exercise (Increased Beta adrenergic activity) and AV shunt (Bypasses arterioles that manage resistance) decrease TPR
picmonic thumbnail
Pressure-volume loop
Phases—left ventricle
Isovolumetric contraction: period between mitral valve closing (S1 sound is heard) and aortic valve opening. Period of highest O2 consumption
Systolic ejection: period between aortic valve opening and closing
Isovolumetric relaxation: period between aortic valve closing (S2 can be heard) and mitral valve opening
Rapid filling: period just after mitral valve opening (S3 occurs)
Reduced filling: period just before mitral valve closing
CHANGES
Increased Preload (Moves to the right like the letter P)
Increased Afterload (Tall and Skinny like the letter A)
Increased Contractility (Moves to the left like the letter C)
picmonic thumbnail
Aortic Stenosis
Characteristics
Age-related Calcifications
Bicuspid Aortic Valve
Crescendo-decrescendo Murmur
Systolic Murmur
Ejection Murmur
Ejection Click
Radiates to Carotids and Apex
Pulsus Parvus et Tardus
Syncope
Helmet Cells
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Tricuspid Regurgitation
Holosystolic
Blowing Murmur
Radiates to Right Sternal Border
Enhanced by Inspiration
picmonic thumbnail
1 min
Mitral Regurgitation
Characteristics
Holosystolic
Blowing Murmur
Loudest at Apex
Radiates toward Axilla
Louder by Squatting
Hand Grip
Expiration
picmonic thumbnail
1 min
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
Pathophysiology
Opening at Intraventricular Septum
Most Common Congenital Heart lesion
Symptoms
High-pitched Holosystolic Murmer (over left sternal border)
Dyspnea and Respiratory Distress
Loud Pulmonic S2
Diagnosis
Echocardiogram
Treatment
Small VSDs Close Spontaneously
Large VSD requires Surgery
Complications
Endocarditis
Eisenmenger's Syndrome
CHF
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Aortic Regurgitation
Auscultation
Diastolic Murmur
Immediate High-pitched
Blowing Murmur
Clinical Findings
Wide Pulse Pressure
Water Hammer Pulse
Head Bobbing
Pulsating Nail Bed
Considerations
Can Cause Austin Flint Murmur
picmonic thumbnail
1 min
Mitral Stenosis
Characteristics
Murmur Follows Opening Snap
Late Diastolic Murmur
Enhanced by Expiration
Low-Pitched Rumbling
Dilation of Left Atrium (LA)
Recurrent Attacks of Rheumatic Fever
picmonic thumbnail
2 mins
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Continuous
Machine like murmur
Often Due to Congenital Rubella
Prematurity
picmonic thumbnail
1 min

Ace Your Medicine (MD/DO) Classes & Exams with Picmonic:

Over 1,090,000 students use Picmonic’s picture mnemonics to improve knowledge, retention, and exam performance.

Choose the #1 Medicine (MD/DO) student study app.

Picmonic for Medicine (MD/DO) covers information that is relevant to your entire Medicine (MD/DO) education. Whether you’re studying for your classes or getting ready to conquer the USMLE Step 1, USMLE Step 2 CK, COMLEX Level 1, or COMLEX Level 2, we’re here to help.

Works better than traditional Medicine (MD/DO) flashcards.

Research shows that students who use Picmonic see a 331% improvement in memory retention and a 50% improvement in test scores.

It's worth every penny