Trevor Shared "Pathoma 19" - 17 Picmonics

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Pathoma 19

Atopic Dermatitis / Eczema
Presentation
Pruritic Vesicles
Inflammatory Skin Rash
Cheeks in Children
Skin Flexural Areas
Associated with Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis
Treatment
Tacrolimus
Moisturizers
Corticosteroids
Phototherapy
Avoid Triggers
Antihistamines
2 mins
Psoriasis
Presentation
Epidermal Hyperproliferation Keratinocytes
Defined Red Salmon Plaques
Silvery Scales
Extensor Surfaces
Bleeding when Removed
Auspitz Sign
Pruritus
Nail Changes
Histological Finding
Munro Microabscesses
Nucleated Cells in Stratum Corneum
Treatment
Retinoids
Topical Corticosteroids
Tar
Immunosuppressants
2 mins
Lichen Planus
Pathophysiology
Mucocutaneous Disorder
30-60 year olds
Signs & Symptoms
Pruritic
Plaques or Papules
Purple & Polygonal
Often Mucosal or Genital Involvement
Wickham Striae
Diagnosis
Biopsy
Sawtooth Infiltrate of Lymphocytes
Treatment
Topical Corticosteroids
Considerations
Hepatitis C Association
2 mins
Pemphigus Vulgaris
Pathophysiology
Autoantibodies against desmosomes
Symptoms
Flaccid Bullae on Skin
Oral Mucosa Involvement
Intraepidermal Acantholysis
Fluid Loss
Infection
Nikolsky Positive
Diagnosis
Biopsy showing Autoantibodies
Treatment
IVIG and Plasmapheresis
Oral Steroids
Immunosuppressants
2 mins
Bullous Pemphigoid
Linear Deposits of IgG
Affects Hemidesmosomes
Epidermal Basement Membrane
Tense Blisters on Skin
Nikolsky Negative
Contain Eosinophils
Rarely Affect Oral Mucosa
2 mins
Acanthosis Nigricans
Associations
Endocrine Disorders
Diabetes Mellitus
Obesity
Malignancy
Presentation
Velvety Plaques
Dark, Thickened Flexural Areas
Diagnosis
Hyperkeratosis with Melanocytes
Treatment
Treat Underlying Disorder
2 mins
Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin
Pathophysiology
Most Common Skin Cancer
2/3 of Cases Due to UV Light Exposure
Pink, Pearl-like Lesions
Rolled Borders
Telangiectasias
Commonly Upper Lip
Diagnosis
Shave Biopsy
Pallisading Nuclei
Treatment
Mohs Micrographic Surgery
2 mins
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin
Epidemiology
2nd Most Common Skin Cancer
UV Light Exposure
Long-term Immunosuppression
Arsenic Exposure
Signs/Symptoms
Ulcerative Red Lesion
Precursor Actinic Keratosis
Commonly Lower Lip
Diagnosis
Biopsy shows Keratin Pearls
Treatment
Mohs Micrographic Surgery
2 mins
Vitiligo
Pathophysiology
Autoimmune Destruction of Melanocytes
Presentation
Hypopigmentation
Acral Areas and Around Orifices
Diagnosis
Clinical Presentation + Woods Lamp
Risk Factors
Other Autoimmune Diseases
Treatment
Glucocorticoids
Tacrolimus
Phototherapy
2 mins
Melanoma Diagnosis
Signs
ABCDE Mnemonic
Asymmetry
Border irregularity
Color variation
Diameter > 6mm
Evolution over time
Diagnosis
S-100 Tumor Marker
LDH (Lactate Dehydrogenase) Screens for Metastasis
Treatment
Wide Local Excision
Adjuvant Therapy
1 min
Types of Malignant Melanoma
Superficial Spreading
Most Common Cause of Melanoma
Nodular
Aggressive and Rapidly Arising
Acral-Lentiginous
Males
Asians and African Americans
Lentigo Maligna
Geographic Shape
Sun Exposed Areas
2 mins
Melanoma Mechanism and Characteristics
Mechanism
Associated with Sunlight Exposure
Mutation in B-RAF kinase
Large Number of Moles
Fair-Skinned people at higher risk
Growth Phases
Radial Growth Phase
No Metastasis
Vertical Growth Phase
Depth of tumor correlates with risk of metastasis
1 min
Actinic Keratosis
Sun Exposure
Papules or Plaques
Small, Rough
Erythematous
Precursor to Squamous Cell Carcinoma
53 secs
Erythema Nodosum
Pathophysiology
Panniculitis
Painful Inflammation
Subcutaneous Fat
Anterior Shins
Risk Factors
Coccidioidomycosis
Pregnancy or OCP Use
Crohn's Disease
Tuberculosis (TB)
Histoplasmosis
Sarcoidosis
Ulcerative Colitis
2 mins
Pityriasis Rosea
Preceded by Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
Single "Herald Patch"
"Christmas Tree" Distribution
Plaques with Collarette Scale
Self-resolving in 6-8 Weeks
1 min
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
Etiologies
Drugs
Symptoms
< 10% of Body Surface Area (BSA) Involved
10-30% BSA Overlaps with Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN)
Fever
Affects Skin and Mucous Membranes
Bullae Formation
Necrosis
Sloughing of Skin
High Mortality Rate
Treatment
Supportive Care
IVIG (Intravenous Immunoglobulin)
3 mins
Tuberous Sclerosis
Characteristics
Autosomal Dominant
Signs and Symptoms
Hamartomas in CNS and Skin
Phakoma
Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
Seizures
Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma
Adenoma Sebaceum
Shagreen Patch
Ash-leaf Spots
Renal Angiomyolipoma
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma
2 mins

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