Kay Shared "IHL" - 12 Picmonics

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IHL

Inflammatory Response
Pathogens Infect Tissue
Mast Cells Release Histamine
Histamine Dilates and Increases Capillary Permeability
Macrophages Engulf Pathogens
Macrophage Signals Cells With Cytokines
Responding Neutrophils Cross Capillary Wall
B And T Lymphocytes Arrive At Injury Site
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2 mins
Innate Immunity Cellular Response
Characteristics
Natural Killer Lymphocytes Attack Abnormal Cells
Neutrophils in Blood
Infected Cells Release Interferon
Complement Proteins Lyse Pathogens/Infected Cells
Dendritic Cells in Tissue
Macrophages in Tissue
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2 mins
Cell-mediated Adaptive Immune Response
Characteristics
Macrophages and Dendritic Cells Present Antigens
T Cell Develops Antigen Specificity
Regulatory T Cells Suppress Response
Memory T Cells Cause Faster Secondary Response
Cytotoxic T Cells Lyse Infected Cells
Infected Cells Present Antigen On Surface
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2 mins
Innate Immunity Barriers
Skin Protects Against Pathogens
Normal Flora Outcompete Pathogens
Lysozyme in Saliva, Tears, and Mucus
Mucous Traps Pathogens
Cilia Remove Mucus
Acid and Digestive Enzymes in the Stomach Kill Pathogens
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2 mins
Humoral Adaptive Immunity
Characteristics
B Cell Binds Free Floating Antigen
B Cell Presents Antigen to Helper T Cell
Helper T Cells Help B Cells Develop Antigen Specificity
Plasma B Cells Secrete Antibodies
Memory B Cells Cause Faster Secondary Response
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2 mins
Hyperbilirubinemia
Cause/Mechanism
Increased Unconjugated Bilirubin
Assessment
Jaundice
Kernicterus
Interventions
Early Feedings
Heme Oxygenase Inhibitors
Phototherapy
Protect Eyes
Monitor for Dehydration
Considerations
Monitor Bilirubin Levels
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3 mins
Gilbert's Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Decreased UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Activity
Decreased Bilirubin Conjugation
Signs and Symptoms
Often Asymptomatic
Jaundice (Mild)
Fasting
Stress
Alcohol Intake
Labs
Increased Unconjugated Bilirubin
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2 mins
Crigler-Najjar Syndrome Type 1
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Absent UDP-glucuronosyltransferase
Symptoms
Neonatal Jaundice
Kernicterus
Diagnosis
Normal Liver Function Tests
Elevated Unconjugated Bilirubin
Treatment
Phototherapy
Plasmapheresis
Calcium Phosphate and Orlistat
Death often by Age 2
Considerations
No Response to Phenobarbital
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3 mins
Beta Thalassemia
Mechanism
Microcytic, Hypochromic Anemia
Mediterranean Populations
Decreased Beta-Globin
Beta-Thalassemia Minor
Increased HbA2
No Intervention
Beta-thalassemia Major
Blood Transfusions
Hemochromatosis
Crew-cut on Skull X-Ray
Diagnosis
Electrophoresis
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2 mins
Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT)
Pathophysiology
Inhibited Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase (UROD)
Most Common Porphyria
20% Autosomal Dominant
80% Sporadic Type
Hepatitis C Association
Signs & Symptoms
Photosensitivity
Blistering of Skin
Tea Colored Urine
Diagnosis
Increased Uroporphyrins (Urinary & Serum)
Treatment
Avoid Sunlight
Phlebotomy
Hydroxychloroquine (Low Dose)
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3 mins
Hemochromatosis Pathophysiology
Pathophysiology
Hemosiderin Deposition
Autosomal Recessive
HLA-A3
Secondary to Transfusion Therapy
Increase Iron
Increase Ferritin
Increased Transferrin Saturation
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2 mins
Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP)
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
Inhibited Porphobilinogen Deaminase
Increased Serum Porphobilinogen
Increased Serum Delta-ALA
Increased Urinary Porphyrin Precursors
Signs & Symptoms
Precipitated By P450 Inducers
Painful Abdomen
Polyneuropathy
Psychological Disturbances
Port Wine-Colored Urine
Treatment
Glucose and Hemin
Considerations
Avoid Triggers
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3 mins

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