Eve Shared "Pharm Test 2" - 22 Picmonics

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Pharm Test 2

Albuterol (Proventil)
Mechanism
Short-Acting Beta-2 Agonist
Indications
Bronchospasm
Asthma
Side Effects
Angina
Tachycardia
Tremor
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1 min
Theophylline
Indications
Asthma
Mechanism
Inhibits Phosphodiesterase
Increases cAMP
Side Effects
Cardiotoxicity
Neurotoxicity
Blocks Adenosine Action
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53 secs
Cromolyn (Mast Cell Stabilizers)
Mechanism
Mast Cell Stabilizer
Indications
Asthma Prophylaxis
Bronchial Inflammation
Allergic Rhinitis
Side Effects
Cough
Bronchospasm
Consideration
Fixed Schedule Administration
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2 mins
Levothyroxine
Indications
Hypothyroidism
Myxedema Coma
Mechanism of Action
Isomer of thyroid hormone (T4)
T3 has higher potency
Side Effects
Hyperthyroid symptoms
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56 secs
Propylthiouracil (PTU) and Methimazole (MMI)
Indications
Hyperthyroidism
Mechanism
Inhibits Thyroid Peroxidase
PTU Blocks Peripheral Conversion of T4 to T3
Side Effects
Agranulocytosis
Skin Rash
Hepatotoxicity (PTU)
Teratogen (MMI)
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1 min
Insulin
Rapid Acting
Insulin Lispro (Humalog)
Insulin Aspart (Novolog)
Insulin Glulisine (Apidra)
Short Acting
Regular Insulin (Humulin R)
Intermediate Acting
Isophane NPH (Humulin N)
Long Acting
Detemir (Levemir)
Glargine (Lantus)
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2 mins
Metformin
Indications
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Mechanism of Action
Decreased Gluconeogenesis
Increased Insulin Sensitivity
Side Effects
Lactic Acidosis
GI Distress
Weight Loss
B12 Deficiency
Contraindication
GFR < 30 ml/min
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2 mins
Glyburide and Glipizide (2nd Generation Sulfonylureas)
Mechanisms
2nd Generation Sulfonylureas
Blocks Potassium Channels in Beta Cells
Stimulate Release of Insulin
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Hypoglycemia
Considerations
More Potent
Beta Blockers Reduce Effects
Avoid Alcohol
Avoid Breastfeeding
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2 mins
Pramlintide (Symlin)
Mechanism
Synthetic Amylin Analog
Indications
Diabetes Type 1 and 2
Supplement Mealtime Insulin
Side Effects
Nausea
Skin Reactions at Injection Site
Considerations
Hypoglycemia When Combined with Insulin
Delayed Absorption of Oral Drugs
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2 mins
Glucagon (GlucaGen)
Mechanism
Increases Glucose
Indications
Hypoglycemic Emergency
Side Effects
Nausea and Vomiting
Considerations
Reconstitute Powder
Consume Oral Carbohydrates
50% Dextrose IV (If No Effect)
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2 mins
Statins
Rhabdomyolysis
Hepatotoxicity
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
Decrease LDL
Decrease Triglycerides
Increase HDL
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2 mins
Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
Characteristics
-statin Suffix
Mechanism
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Indications
High Cholesterol
Side Effects
Hepatotoxicity
Rash
Rhabdomyolysis
Myopathy
Considerations
Monitor Liver Enzymes
Administer at Bedtime
Avoid Grapefruit
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2 mins
Niacin Therapy (Vitamin B3)
Mechanism
Inhibits Lipolysis in Adipose Tissue
Reduces Hepatic VLDL Secretion
Indications
Decrease Triglycerides
Decrease LDL
Increase HDL
Side Effects
Flushing
Decreased by Aspirin
Hyperglycemia
Hyperuricemia
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2 mins
Fibrates
Indications
Hyperlipidemia
Mechanism of Action
Upregulate LPL
Decreases Triglycerides
Slight Increase in HDL
Slight Decrease in LDL
Side Effect
Hepatotoxicity
Cholesterol Gallstones
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1 min
Ezetimibe
Indications
Hyperlipidemia
Mechanism of Action
Cholesterol Absorption Blocker
Decreases LDL
Side Effects
Diarrhea
Increased LFT Values
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56 secs
Bile Acid Resins
Indications
Hyperlipidemia
Mechanism of Action
Bile Acid Reabsorption Prevented
Slight Increase HDL/Triglycerides
Decrease LDL
Drugs
Colestipol (Colestid)
Cholestyramine
Colesevelam
Side Effects
Cholesterol Gallstones
Decreased Absorption of Fat-soluble Vitamins
Patients Hate It
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2 mins
Repaglinide and Nateglinide (Meglitinides)
Mechanisms
Meglitinides
Increased Insulin Release
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effect
Hypoglycemia
Considerations
Eat Within 30 Minutes
Gemfibrozil Increases Risk of Hypoglycemia
Short Half-Life
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2 mins
Stages of Asthma Treatments
Intermittent Asthma
Short-acting Inhaled Beta-Agonist
Persistent Mild Asthma
Low-Dose Inhaled Corticosteroid
Montelukast (Leukotriene Receptor Antagonist)
Cromolyn (Mast Cell Stabilizers)
Theophylline
Persistent Moderate Asthma
Long-acting Inhaled Beta-Agonist
Zileuton
Low-Medium Dose Inhaled Corticosteroid
Persistent Severe Asthma
High-Dose Inhaled Corticosteroid
Omalizumab (Allergies)
Systemic Corticosteroids
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3 mins
Asthma
Obstructive lung disease
Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness
History of Atopic Disease
Beta2 agonists
Corticosteroids
Curschmann's spirals
Hypertrophy of smooth muscle
Reversible
Charcot Leyden crystals
Methacholine challenge
Wheezing
Cough
Initially decreased PaCO2
Pulsus paradoxus
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2 mins
Montelukast (Singulair)
Mechanism
Leukotriene Receptor Blocker
Indications
Allergic Rhinitis
Asthma Prophylaxis
Exercise Induced Bronchospasm
Side Effects
Fatigue
Headache
Mood Changes
Suicidal Thoughts
Considerations
Increased Risk of Churg Strauss
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2 mins

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