Andrew Shared "Neuro Week 1" - 39 Picmonics

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Neuro Week 1

Types of Strokes
Warning Signs
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
Reversible Ischemic Neurologic Deficit (RIND)
Types
Ischemic
Thrombotic
Atherosclerosis
Embolic
Atrial Fibrillation
Hemorrhagic
Severe Hypertension
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3 mins
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Characteristics
Mechanism
Virchow's Triad
Venous Stasis
Endothelial Damage
Hypercoagulability
Symptoms
Tenderness
Homan's Sign
Warmth
Redness
Swelling
Asymptomatic
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1 min
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Management
Diagnosis
Compression Ultrasound (CUS) with Doppler
D-Dimer
Contrast Venography
Treatment
IVC Filter
Heparin for Acute Management
Warfarin for Long-term Management
Thrombectomy/Thrombolysis
Stockings
Walking
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4 mins
Von Willebrand Disease
Mixed platelet and coagulation disorder
Mechanism
Autosomal Dominant Condition Leading to Reduced vWF
Defect in platelet plug formation
Labs
Increased Bleeding Time
PTT increased
Factor VIII decreased
Normal platelet count
Treatment
DDAVP (synthetic vasopressin)
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1 min
Myocardial Infarction Interventions
MONA
Morphine
Oxygen
Nitrates
Aspirin
Thrombolytics (tPA)
Invasive Procedures
Cardiac Catheterization
Stent Placement
Angioplasty
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)
Considerations
Decrease Modifiable Risk Factors
Resuming Activity (Physical, Sexual)
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2 mins
Pulmonary Embolism Causes
Causes
FAT BAT Mnemonic
Fat
Air
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Bacteria
Amniotic Fluid
Tumor
Risk Factors
Hypercoagulable
Central Venous Lines
Immobilized
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1 min
Pulmonary Embolism Presentation and Diagnosis
Presentation
Sudden onset Shortness of Breath (S.O.B.)
Tachypnea
Pleuritic Chest Pain
Hemoptysis
Hypoxemia
Sudden Death
Diagnosis
Gold Standard: CT Pulmonary Angiography
X-Ray
D-Dimer
V/Q Scan
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1 min
Clotting Overview
Characteristics
Endothelial Cells are Damaged
Platelets Respond to Exposed Collagen and Stick
Platelets Release Recruiting Factors
More Platelets are Attracted
Soluble Fibrinogen Turns to Insoluble Fibrin
Fibrin Seals the Clot
Clot Dissolves
Liver Produces Clotting Factors
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2 mins
Coagulation Cascade
Secondary Hemostasis
Intrinsic Pathway
Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)
Heparin
Extrinsic Pathway
Prothrombin Time (PT)
Warfarin
Common Pathway
Thrombin
Convert Fibrinogen to Fibrin
Stabilizes the Platelet Plug
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2 mins
Types of Shock
Hypovolemic
Depleted Volume
Cardiogenic
Pump Failure
Obstructive
Indirect Pump Failure
Distributive
Lost Vascular Tone
Neurogenic
Anaphylactic
Septic
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2 mins
Circle of Willis
Characteristics
Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA) Supplies Motor/Sensory Parts of the Cortex for Lower Extremities
Anterior Communicating Artery (Acomm) Connects ACA to ACA
Internal Carotid Arteries (ICA)
Middle Cerebral Arteries (MCA) Supply Cortex for Upper Limbs and Face
Posterior Communicating Artery (Pcomm) Connects ICA to PCA
Posterior Cerebral Arteries (PCA) Supply Occipital Cortex
Basilar Artery Supplies Medulla, Pons, and PCA
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3 mins
Anterior Cerebral Artery
Contralateral paralysis of lower limb
Contralateral loss of sensation in lower limb
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1 min
Middle Cerebral Artery
Contralateral paralysis upper limb and face
Contralateral loss of sensation of upper limb and face
Affects Wernicke's area and Broca's area
Aphasia if Lesion in Dominant (Left) Hemisphere
Hemineglect if lesion in nondominant (right) hemisphere
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1 min
Major Brain Structures and Functions
Hindbrain
Survival Functions
Sleep/dreaming
RAS (Reticular Activating System)
Midbrain
Controls Skeletal muscles
Relays audio and visual sensory information
Forebrain
Receives audiovisual sensory input and processes
Autonomic Nervous System
Movement
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2 mins
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Characteristics
Frontal Lobe
Parietal Lobe
Temporal Lobe
Occipital Lobe
Medulla Oblongata
Cerebellum
Pons
Spinal Cord
Dorsal Root Ganglia
Grey Matter
White Matter
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2 mins
Right Hemisphere Stroke Assessment
Opposite Side Weakness (Hemiplegia)
Poor Proprioception
Disoriented to Person, Place, Time
Can't Recognize Faces (Prosopagnosia)
Loss of Judgement and Awareness
Impulsiveness
Personality Changes
Tonal Hearing Loss
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2 mins
Left Hemisphere Stroke Assessment
Opposite Side Weakness (Hemiplegia)
Side to Side Discrimination
Aphasia
Agraphia
Slow Performance
Aware of Deficits
Anxiety
Depression
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2 mins
Alteplase
Mechanism
Tissue Plasminogen Activator
Indications
Thrombosis
Side Effects
Bleeding
Contraindications
Intracranial Hemorrhage
Internal Hemorrhaging
Considerations
Minimize Bleeding
Monitor for Shock
Antidote
Aminocaproic Acid
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2 mins
Aspirin
Indications
Fever
Pain and Headache
Cardiovascular Disease (CAD)
Mechanism of Action
Irreversible inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2
Suppress Thromboxanes and Prostaglandins
NSAID
Side Effects
Reye's Syndrome
Tinnitus
Peptic Ulceration
Mixed Acidosis/Alkalosis
Nephropathy
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2 mins
Clopidogrel (Plavix)
Mechanism
ADP Receptor Antagonist
Prevent Platelet Aggregation
Indications
Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)
Prevention of Thrombotic Events
Side Effects
Bleeding
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)
Pancytopenia
Abdominal Pain
Considerations
Withhold Before Surgery
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2 mins

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