Janki Shared "Immuno" - 19 Picmonics

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Immuno

Hypersensitivity Type I
Previous Antigen Exposure
Immediate Reaction
IgE Cross-linking
Presensitized Mast Cells
Histamine Release
Vasodilation
Anaphylaxis
Allergies
Treatment
Epinephrine
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1 min
Hypersensitivity Type II
Cytotoxic
IgM or IgG antibody-mediated
Membrane Attack Complex (MAC)
Mechanism
Opsonization
Complement Activation
NK Cells
Testing
Direct Coombs test
Indirect Coombs Test
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1 min
Hypersensitivity Type III
Immune Complex
Antigen-antibody (IgG) complex activates complement
Neutrophils release lysozomal enzymes
Examples
Arthus Reaction
Serum Sickness
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
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1 min
Hypersensitivity Type IV
Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity
T Cell Mediated
Antibody Independant
Macrophages Activated
Examples
Transplant Rejection
PPD Skin Test
Contact Dermatitis
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1 min
Anaphylaxis Intervention
Intervention
Assess Airway and Oxygen Needs
Reassure Patient with Anxiety
Trendelenburg Position
Methylprednisolone (Solu-medrol)
Epinephrine
Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
Medical Alert Bracelet
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2 mins
Immune System Tissues
Characteristics
Bone Marrow
B Cells and T Cells Formed
B Cells Mature
Thymus
T Cells Tested For Self-Response
T Cells Mature
Lymph Nodes
Mature B Cells and T Cells Monitor Lymph For Pathogens
Spleen
Mature B Cells and T Cells Monitor Blood For Pathogens
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1 min
Myasthenia Gravis
Mechanism
Antibodies to Acetylcholine Receptor
Symptoms
Ptosis
Diplopia
Weakness with Muscle Use
Respiratory Death
Thymus Associated
Treatment
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors
Plasmapheresis
Thymectomy
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1 min
Polymyositis / Dermatomyositis Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosis
Increased CK (CPK)
Increased Aldolase
Anti-JO-1 Antibody
Anti-SRP Antibody
Antinuclear Antibody
Abnormal EMG
Biopsy
Treatment
Corticosteroids
Methotrexate
Azathioprine
Treatment For Resistant Disease
Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG)
Cyclophosphamide
Rituximab
Calcineurin Inhibitors
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2 mins
Polymyositis / Dermatomyositis Disease
Pathophysiology
Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy
More Common in Women
Endomysial Inflammation with CD8+ Cells (Polymyositis)
Perimysial Inflammation with CD4+ Cells (Dermatomyositis)
Signs and Symptoms (Both)
Symmetric Proximal Muscle Weakness
Dysphagia
Lung and Cardiac Involvement
Signs and Symptoms (Dermatomyositis)
Malar Rash
Shawl-like Shoulder Rash
Gottron Papules on Knuckles
Heliotrope Rash
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3 mins
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Mechanism, Treatment and Complications
Mechanism and Characteristics
Systemic Autoimmune Disease
9:1 female to male ratio
Treatment
Glucocorticoids
NSAIDS
Hydroxychloroquine
Cyclophosphamide
Complications
Lupus nephritis
Libman-Sacks Endocarditis
Secondary Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome
Other
Drug-induced lupus
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2 mins
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Diagnosis and Clinical Features
IM DAMN SHARP acronym
Immunoglobulins
Malar rash
Discoid rash
Antinuclear antibody
Mucositis
Neurologic disorders
Serositis
Hematologic disorders
Arthritis
Renal disorders
Photosensitivity
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2 mins
Chronic Granulomatous Disease
Pathophysiology
Most Commonly X-linked Recessive
Defective NADPH Oxidase (Enzyme Complex)
Decreased Hydrogen Peroxide
Impaired Intracellular Killing in Phagocytes
Signs and Symptoms
Recurrent Purulent Skin and Lung Infections
Catalase Positive Organisms
Diagnosis
Negative Nitroblue Tetrazolium Test
DHR (Dihydrorhodamine) Flow Cytometry
Treatment
Antimicrobial Prophylaxis
TMP-SMX
Itraconazole
Interferon-Gamma
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3 mins
Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Integrin CD18 Protein
Defect in LFA-1
Attached to ICAM
Signs and Symptoms
Neutrophilia
Bacterial Infections
Non-Pyogenic
Delayed Separation of Umbilical Cord
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2 mins
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)
Both B and T Cell Deficiency
Recurrent Viral, Bacterial, Fungal, Protozoal Infections
Defective Interleukin (IL) 2 Receptor
X-Linked
Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency
Failure to Synthesize MHC II Antigens
Treat with Bone Marrow Transplant
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2 mins
Hyper IgM Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Deficient CD40 Ligand on Helper T-cells
Defective CD40 Receptor on B-cells
Inability to Class Switch
Signs and Symptoms
Pyogenic Abscess
Decreased IgG, IgA, IgE
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4 mins
IL-12 Receptor Deficiency
Pathophysiology
IL-12 Secreted by Macrophages
Decreased Th1 Response
Decreased IFN Gamma
Signs and Symptoms
Mycobacterial Infections
Salmonella
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1 min
Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis
Mechanism and Characteristics
T Cell Dysfunction
Candida Albicans
Signs and Symptoms
Infections of Skin
Infections of Mucous Membrane
Susceptible to HPV Infections like Condyloma Acuminatum
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42 secs
Common Variable Immunodeficiency
Pathophysiology
Defect in B Cell Maturation
Decreased Plasma Cells
Decreased Immunoglobulins
Signs & Symptoms
Sinopulmonary Infections
Increased Risk of Autoimmune Disease
Lymphoma
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1 min
Bruton's Agammaglobulinemia
Pathophysiology
X-linked Recessive
Defective Bruton Tyrosine Kinase
Blocks B Cell Maturation
Signs & Symptoms
Decreased Immunoglobulins of All Classes
Bacterial Infections After Six Months
Maternal IgG Protects Before Six Months
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2 mins

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