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Catriona Shared "Created" - 41 Picmonics

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Scleroderma (CREST)
Raynaud's phenomenon
Esophageal dysmotility
Diagnostic Tests
Anticentromere antibodies
Small Calcium Deposits in Soft Tissues of Hands and Elbows
Fingertip Ulcers
Atrophy and Fibrous Replacement of Muscularis
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RNA polymerases
RNA polymerase 1 makes rRNA
RNA polymerase 2 makes mRNA
RNA polymerase 3 makes tRNA
Alpha Amanitin inhibits RNA pol 2
Nucleolus Transcribes RRNA
Rifampin inhibits RNA pol in prokaryotes
Actinomycin D Inhibits RNA pol in pro and eukaryotes
Rampant, Massive, Tiny
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Menetrier Disease
Hyperplasia of foveolar epithelium (gastric mucus producing cells)
Enlarged Rugae
Stomach looks like brain gyri
Increased Mucus and Decreased acid
Protein Loss
Peripheral Edema
Also called hypoproteinemic hypertrophic gastropathy
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Leydig and Sertoli cell tumor
Reinke Crystals
Sex Cord-Stromal tumor
Produce Androgens
Female Pseudohermaphroditism (Virilization) and Hirsutism
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Osteomalacia and Rickets
Vitamin D Deficiency
Decreased Calcium (Ca2+)
Increased Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Decreased Calcium and Decreased Phosphate
Hyperactivity of osteoblasts
Alkaline Environment
High Alkaline Phosphatase
Defective mineralization/calcification
Rachitic rosary
Osteopenia on xray
Craniotabes (soft skull)
Vague weakness and fatigue
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Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD)
Autosomal recessive
Defect in fatty acid oxidation
Accumulation of 8-10 carbon fatty acyl carnitines
Hypoketotic Hypoglycemia
Presents in early infancy (sometimes later) as vomiting, lethargy, seizures, and coma
Urea cycle disorder inhibited due to low ATP
Increase in Ammonia
Minor illness can lead to death
Avoid Fasting
Hypoglycemia induces glucagon release which increases plasma fatty acids
dicarboxylic aciduria
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Forebrain (prosencephalon)
Forebrain (prosencephalon) goes to Telencephalon
Telencephalon goes to Cerebral Hemispheres
Telencephalon goes to Lateral Ventricles
Also basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala
Forebrain (prosencephalon) goes to Diencephalon
Also goes to Hypothalamus and optic nerves
3rd ventricle
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Midbrain (Mesencephalon)
Mesencephalon goes to midbrain
Mesencephalon goes to aqueduct
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Hindbrain (rhombencephalon)
Hindbrain (rhombencephalon) goes to Metencephalon
Metencephalon goes to pons and cerebellum
Upper part of the 4th ventricle
Hindbrain (rhombencephalon) goes to Myelencephalon
Goes to medulla
Lower part of the 4th ventricle
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Anterior hypothalamus
Cools the body
Parasympathetic Nervous System
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Nucleus Solitarius
Visceral sensory information
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Nucleus Ambiguus
Cranial portion of CN XI
Motor information
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Cranial Nerve Lesions
Toward side of lesion
CN V motor lesion
CN XII lesion
Away from side of lesion
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Cingulate (subfalcine)
Can Compress the Anterior Cerebral Artery
Cingulate gyrus can be affected
Contralateral Leg Weakness
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Transtentorial (Uncal) Herniation
Ipsilateral CN III leading to a down and out gaze
Posterior Cerebral Artery (PCA)
Contralateral Homonymous Hemianopia with macular sparing
Contralateral corticospinal tract in midbrain leading to crus cerebri
Advanced stages can lead to Duret Hemorrhage
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Downward Transtentorial (Central) Herniation
Rupture of the paramedian Basilar Artery branches
Duret Hemorrhage
Usually fatal
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Hemoglobin C
Glutamic acid replaced by Lysine
Autosomal recessive
Mild Anemia
HbC crystals
Target Cells
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Myocardial Infarction changes
We Can Never Master Grandfather Farve
Cause All Footballers are Ruined Over Aneurysms
Number 4
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Femoral Triangle
Direct Hernia is medial
Indirect hernias are lateral
Transversalis Fascia Weakness
Older Males
Patent Processus Vaginalis
More Common in Male Infants
Femoral Sheath
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Renal Osteodystrophy
Failure of Vitamin D hydroxylation Leading to Vitamin D Deficiency
Subperiosteal thinning of bone
Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
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