Jessica Shared "Board 3 Review" - 118 Picmonics

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Board 3 Review

Bacterial Endocarditis
Signs and Symptoms
Fever
New murmur
Janeway Lesions
Splinter Hemorrhages
Roth spots/round white spots on retina
Osler nodes/tender lesions on finger or toe pads
Anemia
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2 mins
Duke Criteria for Infective Endocarditis
Major Criteria
Blood Culture Positive
Endocardial Involvement
Minor Criteria
Fever
Immunologic Phenomena
Vascular Phenomena
Predisposition
Microbiological Evidence
Diagnosis
Two Major Criteria, or
One Major and Three Minor Criteria, or
Five Minor Criteria
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4 mins
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Pathophysiology
Decreased phenylalanine hydroxylase
Decreased tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor
Autosomal Recessive
Tyrosine Becomes Essential
Phenylalanine found in Nutrasweet
Symptoms
Musty or mousy body odor
Growth retardation
Seizures
Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
Hypopigmentation
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2 mins
Sumatriptan
Mechanism of Action
Short Half-Life
5-HT Agonist
Inhibits Trigeminal Nerve Activation
Induces Vasoconstriction
Indications
Migraine
Cluster Headache
Side Effects
Increased Risk of Serotonin Syndrome
Paresthesias
Coronary Vasospasm
Contraindication
Prinzmetal's Angina
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
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3 mins
Methylergonovine (Methergine) and Ergotamine (Ergot Alkaloids)
Mechanism
Smooth Muscle Contraction
Vasoconstriction
Indications
Migraine
Postpartum Hemorrhage
Side Effects
Nausea and Vomiting
Severe Hypertension
Tachycardia
Considerations
2nd Line Agent
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2 mins
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Signs and Symptoms
Kussmaul respirations
Dehydration
Abdominal Pain
Nausea/vomiting
Psychosis
Fruity breath Odor
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1 min
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Diagnosis and Labs
Diagnosis
Blood glucose Increased > 250 mg/dL
Anion gap metabolic acidosis
Decreased pH < 7.3
Decreased serum bicarbonate < 18
Plasma ketones
Other Labs
Hyperkalemia
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1 min
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Treatment
Initial Management
IV Normal Saline
Regular Insulin Drip
Subsequent Management (correction of electrolytes)
Potassium (K+)
Glucose
Treat Underlying Cause
Monitoring
Venous pH
Serum Bicarbonate (HCO3)
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1 min
Syndrome Of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)
Pathophysiology
Hypersecretion of ADH
Increased Sensitivity to ADH
Signs & Symptoms
Serum Hypoosmolality
Coma and Seizure
Dilutional Hyponatremia
Cramps and Tremors
Euvolemia
Change in LOC
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2 mins
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) Pharmacologic Interventions
Diuretics
Hypertonic IV Fluids
Demeclocycline
Tolvaptan and Conivaptan
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1 min
Small Cell (Oat Cell) Carcinoma
Characteristics
Aggressively Malignant
Strong Correlation with Smoking
Central Location
Amplification of myc Oncogenes
Signs and Symptoms
Narrowing of Bronchial Airways
Cushing's Syndrome
Ectopic ACTH
Syndrome Of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)
Lambert-Eaton Syndrome
Diagnosis
Kulchitsky Cells
Neuron-Specific Enolase Positive
Chromogranin A Positive
Treatment
Chemotherapy and Radiation
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3 mins
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung
Characteristics
Strong Correlation with Smoking
More Common in Men
Central Location
Cavitating Lesion Extending to Hilum
PTHrP causes Hypercalcemia
Diagnosis
Keratin Pearls
Intercellular Bridges
Treatment
Surgical Resection (if Early Stage)
Chemotherapy and Radiation (if Later Stage)
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2 mins
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin
Epidemiology
2nd Most Common Skin Cancer
UV Light Exposure
Long-term Immunosuppression
Arsenic Exposure
Signs/Symptoms
Ulcerative Red Lesion
Precursor Actinic Keratosis
Commonly Lower Lip
Diagnosis
Biopsy shows Keratin Pearls
Treatment
Mohs Micrographic Surgery
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2 mins
Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin
Pathophysiology
Most Common Skin Cancer
2/3 of Cases Due to UV Light Exposure
Pink, Pearl-like Lesions
Rolled Borders
Telangiectasias
Commonly Upper Lip
Diagnosis
Shave Biopsy
Pallisading Nuclei
Treatment
Mohs Micrographic Surgery
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2 mins
Types of Malignant Melanoma
Superficial Spreading
Most Common Cause of Melanoma
Nodular
Aggressive and Rapidly Arising
Acral-Lentiginous
Males
Asians and African Americans
Lentigo Maligna
Geographic Shape
Sun Exposed Areas
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2 mins
Alkaptonuria
Autosomal Recessive
Deficiency of homogentisic acid oxidase
In degradative pathway of tyrosine to fumarate
Homogentisic acid harmful to cartilage
Arthritis
Dark Connective Tissue
Urine turns black on standing
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1 min
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
Characteristics
Acquired from Thiamine Deficiency
Backup of Alanine and Pyruvate
Symptoms and Complications
Neurologic Defects
Lactic Acidosis
Interventions
Ketogenic Nutrients
Lysine and Leucine (Ketogenic Nutrients)
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56 secs
G6PD Mechanism
Turns NADP+ to NADPH
NADPH Used by Glutathione Reductase
Detoxifies Free Radicals and Peroxides
X-linked Recessive
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2 mins
G6PD Deficiency
X-linked Recessive
Hemolytic Anemia
Inflammatory Response
Fava Beans
Sulfonamides
Primaquine
Anti TB Drugs
Heinz Bodies
Bite Cells
Prevalent Among African Americans due to Increased Malarial Resistance
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2 mins
Meniere's Disease
Mechanism
Excess Endolymph
Signs and Symptoms
Tinnitus
One-sided Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Vertigo
Nausea and Vomiting
Considerations
Meclizine (Antivert)
Low Salt Diet
Surgery
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2 mins

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