Kimberly Shared "Pulm" - 32 Picmonics

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Pulm

Reading a Chest X-Ray
ABCDE Approach
Airway and Appliances
Bones
Cardiac
Diaphragm
Everything Else
Masses
Pulmonary Vasculature
Lung Parenchyma
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2 mins
Lung Sounds - Rhonchi
Location
Trachea and Bronchi
Description
Low Pitched Rumbling
Sounds Like
Gurgling
Cause
Narrowed Airway
Secretions or Bronchospasm
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48 secs
Lung Sounds - Wheezes
Location
Throughout Lung
Description
High Pitched
Sounds Like
Musical
Cause
Air Moving through Narrowed Airways
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37 secs
Lung Sounds - Pleural Friction Rub
Location
Anterior Lateral Lung
Description
Dry, Rubbing, or Squeaking
Sounds Like
Rubbing a Balloon with Finger
Cause
Inflamed Pleura
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49 secs
Lung Sounds - Crackles
Location
Lower Lobes
Description
Fine/Coarse
Sounds Like
Fine: Twisting Hair through Fingers
Coarse: Velcro
Cause
Collapsed Small Airways and Alveoli "Popping Open"
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1 min
Pulmonary Embolism Causes
Causes
FAT BAT Mnemonic
Fat
Air
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Bacteria
Amniotic Fluid
Tumor
Risk Factors
Hypercoagulable
Central Venous Lines
Immobilized
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1 min
Pulmonary Embolism Presentation and Diagnosis
Presentation
Sudden onset Shortness of Breath (S.O.B.)
Tachypnea
Pleuritic Chest Pain
Hemoptysis
Hypoxemia
Sudden Death
Diagnosis
Gold Standard: CT Pulmonary Angiography
X-Ray
D-Dimer
V/Q Scan
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1 min
Spontaneous Pneumothorax
Mechanism
Accumulation of Air in Pleural Space
Tall and Thin Young Males
Underlying Disease
Bleb or Bulla Rupture
Signs and Symptoms
Chest Pain
Hypoxemia
Decreased Breath Sounds
Hyperresonance
Shortness of Breath (SOB)
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1 min
Tension Pneumothorax
Mechanism
Air Enters Pleural Space, but Can't Exit
Trauma or Infection
Signs and Symptoms
Decreased Breath Sounds
Trachea Deviates Away from Affected Side
Chest Pain
Tachycardia
Tachypnea
Hypotension
Hypoxemia
Hyperresonance
Emergency
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2 mins
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Assessment
Cause
Damaged Alveolar-Capillary Membrane
Assessment
Restlessness
Dyspnea
Refractory Hypoxemia
Decreased PaO2
Diffuse Pulmonary Infiltrates
Atelectasis
Pulmonary Hypertension
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2 mins
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Interventions
Interventions
Closely Monitor Patient
ABG's (Arterial Blood Gases)
Oxygen
Assess for O2 Toxicity
Mechanical Ventilation
PEEP
Assess for Pneumothorax
Permissive Hypercapnia
Considerations
High Mortality Rate
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2 mins
Emphysema
Clinical Features
Pink Puffer
Exhale through Pursed Lips
Barrel Chest
Pathophysiology
Obstructive Lung Disease
Increased Lung Compliance
Types
Centriacinar
Panacinar
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2 mins
Chronic Bronchitis
Pathophysiology
Chronic Inflammation of Bronchi
Signs and Symptoms
Early-Onset Cyanosis
Blue Bloaters
Productive Cough
Wheezing
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Late-Onset Dyspnea
Crackles
Diagnosis
Reid Index > 50%
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2 mins
Mycoplasma Pneumoniae
Characteristics
No Cell Wall and No Gram Stain
Cholesterol Membrane
Eaton's Agar
Mulberry Colonies
Disease
Atypical pneumonia
Military Recruits
Cold IgM Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
Erythema Multiforme
Treatment
Tetracycline
Erythromycin
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2 mins
Streptococcus Pneumoniae Characteristics
Characteristics
Gram-Positive
Diplococci
Lancet-Shaped
Catalase-Negative
Optochin-Sensitive
Bile Soluble
Alpha-Hemolytic
Polysaccharide Capsule
Positive Quellung Reaction
IgA Protease
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1 min
Common Causes of Pneumonia: Children (4 Weeks - 18 Years)
Runts May Cough Chunky Sputum
RSV (Viruses)
Mycoplasma
Chlamydia pneumoniae
Chlamydia trachomatis
Streptococcus pneumoniae
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1 min
Common Causes of Pneumonia: Adults (18 - 40 Years Old)
Mycoplasma
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Chlamydia pneumoniae
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41 secs
Common Causes of Pneumonia: Middle-Aged Adults (40 - 65 Years Old)
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Mycoplasma
Haemophilus influenzae
Anaerobes
Viruses
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59 secs
Common Causes of Pneumonia: Elderly (65+ Years Old)
Influenza Virus
Haemophilus influenzae
Anaerobes
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Gram-Negative Rods
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59 secs
Croup (Laryngotracheobronchitis)
Mechanism
Parainfluenza Virus
Assessment
3 Months to 3 Years
Nighttime
Barking Seal Cough
Inspiratory Stridor
Interventions
Cool Humidified Air
Dexamethasone
Racemic Epinephrine
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2 mins

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