Tabatha Shared "4th semester" - 37 Picmonics

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4th semester

Parts of an ECG
PQRST
P Wave
Atrial Depolarization
QRS Complex
Ventricular Depolarization
T Wave
Ventricular Repolarization
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2 mins
ECG Interpretation
Rate
Rhythm
P Waves
Upright, Rounded, Before Every QRS
PR Interval (< 0.20 seconds)
Normal QRS (< 0.12 seconds)
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2 mins
Acute Digoxin Toxicity
Clinical Symptoms
Hyperkalemia
Cholinergic (Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea)
Blurry Yellow Green Vision with Halo of Light
Arrhythmia
Bradycardia
EKG Changes
Prolonged PR interval
Decreased QT
Scooping on EKG
T Wave Inversion
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2 mins
ECG: Sinus Bradycardia
Rate
< 60 bpm
Rhythm
Regular
P Wave
Present, Upright, Every QRS
PR Interval
< 0.20 seconds
QRS Interval
< 0.12 seconds
Treatment
Atropine
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1 min
ECG: Sinus Tachycardia
Rate
> 100 bpm
Rhythm
Regular
P Wave
Present, Upright, Every QRS
PR Interval
< 0.20 seconds
QRS Interval
< 0.12 seconds
Treatment
Treat Underlying Cause
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2 mins
ECG: Atrial Fibrillation
Rate
Variable Rate
Rhythm
Irregular Rhythm
P Wave
No P Wave
PR Interval
No PR Interval
QRS Interval
QRS < 0.12 Seconds
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1 min
ECG: Atrial Flutter
Rate
Variable
Rhythm
Regular or Irregular
P Wave
Saw Tooth, Multiple Before Every QRS
PR Interval
Non-measurable
QRS Interval
< 0.12 seconds
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2 mins
Lidocaine
Mechanism
Blocks Na+ Channels
Indications
Ventricular Arrhythmia
Anesthetic
Side Effects
Paresthesias
Seizures
Respiratory Depression
Drowsiness
Consideration
Anesthetic Effects Extended with Epinephrine
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1 min
Digoxin (Lanoxin)
Mechanism of Action
Increases Inotropy
Indications
Heart Failure
Atrial Fibrillation
Side Effects
Bradycardia
Fatigue
Contraindications
Heart Block
Nursing Considerations
Heart Rate Below 60
Hypokalemia
Monitor for Toxicity and Visual Changes
Digibind
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2 mins
Cardiovascular Effects of Beta-Blockers
Cardiac Myocytes and Vasculature
Decrease cAMP
Decreases SA and AV Node Conduction Velocity
Lower Blood Pressure
Decrease O2 Consumption
Decreases Mortality Post-MI
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2 mins
Right Heart Failure Assessment
Jugular Venous Distention (JVD)
Peripheral Edema
Hepatosplenomegaly
Nocturia
Weight Gain
Ascites
Fatigue
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1 min
Heart Failure Interventions
Diagnostic Tests
Echocardiogram
Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring
Improve Gas Exchange
High Fowler's Position
Oxygen
Advanced Airway
Drugs and Devices
Diuretics
Beta Blockers
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
ACE Inhibitors
Digoxin (Lanoxin)
Pacemaker
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2 mins
Alteplase
Mechanism
Tissue Plasminogen Activator
Indications
Thrombosis
Side Effects
Bleeding
Contraindications
Intracranial Hemorrhage
Internal Hemorrhaging
Considerations
Minimize Bleeding
Monitor for Shock
Antidote
Aminocaproic Acid
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2 mins
Myocardial Infarction Assessment
Assessment
Substernal Chest Pain
Crushing or Dull Sensation
Arm, Jaw, and Neck
> 20 Minutes
Unrelieved by Nitro
Palpitations
Diaphoresis
Fear of Impending Doom
Nausea and Vomiting
Shortness of Breath
Considerations
Monitor for Arrhythmias
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2 mins
Adenosine (Adenocard)
Mechanism
Slows AV Conduction
Indications
Supraventricular Tachycardia (Paroxysmal)
Side Effects
Bradycardia
Flushing
Dyspnea
Considerations
Rapid IV Push
Caffeine and Theophylline Decrease Effectiveness
Dipyridamole May Intensify Effects
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2 mins
Types of Heart Failure
Left Sided
Pulmonary Congestion
Right Sided
Peripheral Edema
High Output
Unable to Meet Metabolic Needs
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1 min
Cardiac Tamponade
Mechanism
Fluid in the Pericardial Sac
Pericarditis
Decreased Cardiac Output
Signs/Symptoms
Beck's Triad
Hypotension
Jugular Venous Distention (JVD)
Distant Heart Sounds
Pulsus Paradoxus
Electrical Alternans
Treatment
Pericardiocentesis
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1 min
Dobutamine
Mechanism
Beta-1 Agonist
Inotropic
Indications
Heart Failure
Side Effects
Tachycardia
Arrhythmias
Considerations
Closely Monitor Patients
Other Meds May Increase Potency
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1 min
Left Heart Failure Assessment
Pulmonary Assessment
Pulmonary Congestion
Pink Frothy Sputum
Wheezing or Crackles
Dyspnea with Exertion
Cough
Systemic Assessment
Fatigue
Tachycardia
Weak Peripheral Pulse
S3, S4 Heart Sounds
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1 min
Metabolic Acidosis Assessment
Characteristics
Decreased pH < 7.35
Decreased HCO3 < 22
Signs & Symptoms
Abdominal Pain
CNS Depression
Coma
Hypotension
Arrhythmias
Increased Respirations
Kussmaul Respirations
Flushed, Warm, Dry Skin
Muscle Weakness
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2 mins

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