Landon Shared "Pharm- Exam 2" - 21 Picmonics

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Pharm- Exam 2

Fluorouracil (5-FU)
Mechanism
Antimetabolite
"Thymine-less Death"
Indications
Slow-growing Solid Tumors
Co-administered with Leucovorin for Stomach Cancer
Basal Cell Carcinoma (Topical)
Side Effects
Myelosuppression
Mucositis
Severe Diarrhea
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3 mins
Methotrexate
Indications
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Cancer
Medical Abortion
Mechanism
Folic Acid Analog
Inhibits Dihydrofolate Reductase
Side Effects
Pulmonary Fibrosis
Myelosuppression is Treated with Leucovorin Rescue (Folinic Acid)
Macrocytic Anemia
Hepatitis
Teratogenic
Mucositis
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1 min
Rituximab
Indications
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA)
Wegener's (Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis)
Mechanism
Monoclonal Antibody Against CD20
Found on B Cell Neoplasms
Side Effects
Infusion Reactions
Skin and Mouth Reactions
Reactivation of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)
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3 mins
Aromatase Inhibitors
Indications
Estrogen Receptor-positive (ER+) Breast Tumors
Systemic Metastases
Drugs
Reversible, non-steroid
Letrozole
Anastrozole
Irreversible, steroid
Exemestane
Side Effects
Osteoporosis
Arthritis
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1 min
Tamoxifen
Mechanism of Action
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM)
Antagonist on Breast Tissue
Indications
ER-positive Breast Cancer
Side Effects
Decreased Risk of Osteoporosis
Increased Risk of Endometrial Cancer
Increased Risk of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)
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1 min
Doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
Indications
Solid Tumors
Lymphomas and Leukemias
Mechanism
Free Radical Production
Intercalates DNA
Prevents Double Helix from Sealing
Side Effect
Cardiotoxicity
Dexrazoxane Decreases Toxicity
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1 min
Bleomycin
Indications
Testicular Cancer
Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Mechanism of Action
Induces Free Radical Formation
Breaks in DNA Strands
Side Effects
Pulmonary Fibrosis
Skin Changes
Mucositis
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1 min
Restrictive Lung Diseases
Poor Breathing Mechanics
Interstitial Lung Diseases
Goodpasture's Syndrome
Eosinophilic Granuloma
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis
Sarcoidosis
Pneumoconiosis
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Drug Toxicity
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome
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2 mins
Hairy Cell Leukemia
Pathophysiology
Mature B Cell Tumor
Signs and Symptoms
Splenomegaly
Diagnosis
Flow Cytometry
Cells Have Filamentous Hair-Like Projections
Stains TRAP Positive
Dry Tap on Bone Marrow Aspiration
Treatment
Cladribine
Pentostatin
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2 mins
Azathioprine (Imuran)
Mechanism
Antimetabolite
Prodrug of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)
Inhibits Synthesis of Nucleic Acids
Indications
Autoimmune Disorders
Kidney Transplantation
Side Effects
Myelosuppression
Increased Toxicity with Allopurinol Use
Pancreatitis
Malignancy
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3 mins
Trastuzumab
Indications
HER-2+ Breast Cancer
Stomach cancer
Mechanism
Monoclonal antibody against HER-2
Inhibition of Cellular Signaling
Cytotoxicity
Side effects
Cardiotoxicity
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1 min
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Mechanism
Dry (nonexudative)
Wet (exudative)
Signs and Symptoms
Scotomas
Blurred, darkened vision
Loss of central vision
Distortion of vision
Considerations
Drug Therapy
Surgery
Low-vision assistive devices
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2 mins
Class I Antiarrhythmics (Na+ Channel Blockers) Overview
Indications
Arrhythmias
Local Anesthesia
Mechanism of Action
Block or Slow Conduction
Block Na+ Channels
Raise Threshold
State Dependent
Contraindication
Hyperkalemia
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1 min
Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Na+ Channel Blockers)
Indications
Arrhythmias
Mechanism of Action
Increase AP, ERP, and QT interval.
Drugs
Disopyramide
Procainamide
Drug-induced Lupus
Quinidine
Cinchonism
Shared Side Effects
Thrombocytopenia
Torsades de Pointes
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1 min
Class IB Antiarrhythmics (Na+ Channel Blockers)
Indications
Arrhythmias
After Myocardial Infarction
Mechanism of Action
Affect Ischemic Tissue
Decrease AP duration
Drugs
Mexiletine
GI Upset
Lidocaine
CNS Depression
Tocainide
Phenytoin
Hirsutism
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2 mins
Class IC Antiarrhythmics (Na+ Channel Blockers)
Indications
Used as Last Resort
V-Tach
Mechanism of Action
No Effect on AP Duration
Drugs
Propafenone
Flecainide
Contraindications
Post-Myocardial Infarction
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55 secs
Class III Antiarrhythmics (K+ Channel Blockers)
Indications
Arrhythmias
Mechanism of Action
Increase AP Duration, ERP, and QT Interval
Drug Names
Amiodarone
Check Function Tests
Dirty Drug
Ibutilide
Dofetilide
Sotalol
Beta-Blocker
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2 mins
Class IV Antiarrhythmics (Ca2+ Channel Blockers)
Indications
SVT
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Mechanism of Action
Decrease Conduction Velocity
Increase PR Interval and ERP
Drugs
Verapamil
Diltiazem
Nimodipine
Side Effects
Cardiovascular
Constipation
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2 mins
Phenytoin
Indications
Status Epilepticus
Tonic-Clonic Seizures
Mechanism of Action
Blocks Na+ Channel Activation
Inhibition of Glutamate Release
Class IB Antiarrhythmic
Side Effects
Teratogenic
Macrocytic Megaloblastic Anemia
Induce Cytochrome P450
Drug-induced Lupus
Neuropathy
Hirsutism
Gingival Hyperplasia
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1 min
Lidocaine
Mechanism
Blocks Na+ Channels
Indications
Ventricular Arrhythmia
Anesthetic
Side Effects
Paresthesias
Seizures
Respiratory Depression
Drowsiness
Consideration
Anesthetic Effects Extended with Epinephrine
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1 min

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