Jason Shared "Micro - Exam 2" - 36 Picmonics

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Micro - Exam 2

Pityriasis Versicolor (Tinea versicolor)
Mechanism
Lipid-Dependent Fungus
Fatty Acids Damage Melanocytes
Malassezia Furfur
Hot, Humid Weather
Signs and Symptoms
Hypopigmentation
Hyperpigmented Patches
Diagnosis
Spaghetti and Meatball Appearance on KOH Prep
Fragmented Hyphae with Clusters of Yeast
Treatment
Topical or Oral Antifungals
Selenium Sulfide
Zinc
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4 mins
Candida Albicans
Fungi
Yeast with Pseudohyphae at 20 Degrees C
Germ Tube Formation at 37 Degrees C
Pruritic Vaginitis
White Cottage Cheese Discharge
Fiery Red Mucosa
Diabetics
Antibiotic Use
Esophageal Thrush in Immunocompromised
Diaper Rash
Endocarditis in IV Drug Users
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2 mins
Sporothrix Schenckii
Characteristics
Fungi
Thermally Dimorphic
Cigar-shaped Yeast Forms
Rose Thorn Prick
Packaging Peat Moss
Signs & Symptoms
Local Pustule or Ulcer
Nodules on Draining Lymphatics
Treatment
Potassium Iodide
Itraconazole
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2 mins
Histoplasmosis
Fungi
2-5 um
Yeast Cells within Macrophages
Starling Bird Poop
Bat Poop
Caves
Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys
Pneumonia
Caseating Granuloma
Erythema Nodosum
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1 min
Blastomyces
Characteristics
Fungi
Hyphae Form at 20°-25°C
Yeast Form at 37°C
Round Yeast
5-15 Micrometer (um or μm)
Single Broad-Based Buds
Thick Doubly-Refractive Walls
East of the Mississippi River and Around the Great Lakes
Signs and Symptoms
Pneumonia
Skin Infection
Bone Infection
Granulomatous Response
Treatment
Itraconazole
Amphotericin B
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3 mins
Coccidioidomycosis
Characteristics
Fungi
Dimorphic
Southwest
After earthquakes
Spherule
20-60 um
Signs and Symptoms
Pneumonia
Meningitis
Bone Infection
Skin infections
Erythema Nodosum
Granulomatous Inflammation
Caseous Necrosis
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2 mins
Cryptococcus neoformans
Characteristics
Monomorphic
Encapsulated
Polysaccharide Capsule
Narrow-Based Buds
Latex Agglutination
Pigeons
India Ink
Mucicarmine stain
Signs and Symptoms
AIDS/Immunocompromised
Meningitis
Soap Bubble Lesions in Brain
Pneumonia
Treatment
Fluconazole
Flucytosine
Amphotericin
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3 mins
Aspergillus fumigatus
Characteristics
Fungi
Monomorphic
Septate Hyphae
Branch at Acute Angles
Fruiting Bodies
Disease
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA)
Eosinophilia
Increased IgE
Glucocorticoids +/- Azoles
Pulmonary Aspergillosis
TB Cavity
Lung Aspergilloma
Hemoptysis
Invasive Aspergillosis
AIDS/Immunocompromised
Chronic Granulomatous Disease
Hemorrhagic Infarction
Necrotizing Bronchopneumonia
Voriconazole +/- Caspofungin
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3 mins
Pneumocystis jirovecii
Fungi
AIDS/Immunocompromised
Fever
Hypoxemia
Bronchoalveolar Lavage
Biopsy
Methenamine Silver Stain
Saucer/cup shaped yeast forms
Diffuse interstitial pneumonia CXR
TMP-SMX
Start prophylaxis when CD4 drops under 200
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1 min
Mucor and Rhizopus
Characteristics
Fungi
Irregular Non-septate Hyphae
Branching Wide Angles over 90 degrees
Signs and Symptoms
Leukemic Patients
Proliferate due to excess ketones and glucose
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
Rhinocerebral frontal lobe abscess
Penetrate cribriform plate into brain
Black Necrotic Eschars on Face
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2 mins
Entamoeba histolytica
Pathophysiology
Protozoa
Amebiasis
Ingestion of Cysts in Food and Water
Signs and Symptoms
Bloody Diarrhea
Flask-Shaped Ulcer
Liver Abscess
Anchovy Paste
RUQ Pain
Diagnosis
RBCs in Cytoplasm of Trophozoite
Cyst With Four Nuclei
Treatment
Metronidazole
Iodoquinol
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3 mins
Giardia lamblia
Characteristics
Protozoa
Ingestion of Cysts
Seen in Campers
Daycare Centers
Mental Hospitals
Infects Small Intestine
Signs and Symptoms
Bloating
Flatulence
Fatty Diarrhea
Diagnosis
Crescent-shaped Protozoa Adjacent to Epithelial Brush Border
Predisposed if Low IgA
Treatment
Metronidazole
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3 mins
Cryptosporidium
Characteristics
Protozoa
Ingestion of Oocysts in Food or Water
Acid Fast Cysts
Signs and Symptoms
Outbreaks of Diarrhea from Contaminated Water Supply
Mild Disease in Non-immunocompromised
Severe Diarrhea in AIDS
Treatment
Nitazoxanide for Immunocompetent
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2 mins
Trichomonas vaginalis
Characteristics
Protozoa
Signs and Symptoms
Vaginitis
Pruritus
Foul-smelling Greenish Frothy Discharge
Strawberry Cervix
Diagnosis
Corkscrew Motility on Wet Prep
Treatment
Metronidazole
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2 mins
Plasmodium General
Characteristics
Protozoa
Malaria
Anopheles Mosquito
Signs and Symptoms
Cyclic Fever
Headache
Anemia
Splenomegaly
Diagnosis
Blood Smear
Treatment
Chloroquine
Mefloquine for Resistant Types
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3 mins
Plasmodium Specific
Malariae
Fever Every Three Days
Vivax/Ovale
Fever Every Two Days
Duffy Antigen Binding Site
Duffy often absent in Black Population
Primaquine treats dormant form in liver
Falciparum
Most severe
Irregular Cycles
Occludes capillaries in the brain, kidneys, and lungs
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4 mins
Babesia
Characteristics
Protozoa
Ixodes Tick
Same vector as Borrelia
Northeastern US
Asplenia
Signs and Symptoms
Fever
Hemolytic Anemia
Diagnosis
Blood Smear
Maltese Cross
Treatments
Atovaquone
Azithromycin
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3 mins
Toxoplasma gondii
Characteristics
Protozoa
Cysts in meat or cat feces
Signs and Symptoms
Brain Abscess in HIV Patients
Ring-enhancing brain lesions
Crosses placenta in pregnant women
Congenital TORCH infection
Treatment
Pyrimethamine
Sulfadiazine
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2 mins
Leishmania donovani
Pathophysiology
Protozoan
Visceral Leishmaniasis
Hepatosplenomegaly
Spiking Fevers
Skin Pigmentation
Sandfly
Diagnosis
Macrophages with Amastigotes
Treatment
Amphotericin B
Oral Miltefosine
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2 mins
Trypanosoma Brucei
Characteristics
Protozoa
Trypanosoma Gambiense
Trypanosoma Rhodesiense
Tsetse Fly
Disease
Painful Bite
African Sleeping Sickness
Recurring Fever
Due to Antigenic Variation
Enlarged Lymph Nodes
Encephalitis
Treatment
Suramin for Blood-Borne Disease
Melarsoprol for CNS Penetration
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2 mins

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