Jason Shared "CS 2 Unit 1" - 28 Picmonics

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CS 2 Unit 1

Hypertension Assessment
Mechanism
Essential Hypertension
Secondary Hypertension
Assessment
Headache
Vision Changes
Nosebleed (Epistaxis)
Chest Pain
Syncope (Fainting)
Diagnosis
Average 2 Sets, 2 Minutes Apart
After 2 or More Visits
Nursing Considerations
Take BP Both Arms
Common in African Americans
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2 mins
Hypertension Intervention
Lifestyle Modifications
Weight Reduction and Exercise
Diet Changes
Relaxation Techniques
Smoking Cessation
Medications
Encourage Self Monitoring
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1 min
Hypertension Medications
Diuretics
Beta Blockers
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
Calcium Channel Blockers
ACE Inhibitors
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1 min
Hyperkalemia
Assessment
> 5.0 mEq/L K+
Abdominal Cramps
Muscle Weakness
Diarrhea
Arrhythmia
Tall, Peaked T Waves
Interventions
IV Calcium
Infusion of Glucose and Insulin
Loop or Thiazide Diuretics
Kayexalate
Dialysis
Prevention Education
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2 mins
Hypokalemia
Assessment
< 3.5 mEq/L
Muscle Weakness
Arrhythmia
U Wave
Ileus
Hyporeflexia
Interventions
IV K+ Infusion at 5-10 mEq/hr
Give Orally with Food
Nursing Considerations
Monitor Respiratory Status
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3 mins
Hypernatremia
Assessment
> 145 mEq/L Na+
Change in LOC
Extreme Thirst
Orthostatic Hypotension
Dry Flushed Skin
Muscle Twitching
Seizures
Priority Interventions
Prevent Dehydration
Hypotonic Solutions (0.225% or 0.45% NaCl)
Sodium Restriction
Diuretics
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2 mins
Hyponatremia
Assessment
< 135 mEq Na+
Nausea and Vomiting
Decreased LOC
Confusion / Lethargy
Seizures
Priority Interventions
Assess Airway
Reduce Diuretic Dosage
Fluid Excess Hyponatremia
Mannitol (Osmitrol)
Fluid Restriction
Fluid Deficit Hyponatremia
Hypertonic Solution (3% or 5% NaCl)
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2 mins
Hemochromatosis Pathophysiology
Pathophysiology
Hemosiderin Deposition
Autosomal Recessive
HLA-A3
Secondary to Transfusion Therapy
Increase Iron
Increase Ferritin
Increased Transferrin Saturation
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2 mins
Hemochromatosis Signs and Symptoms
Signs and Symptoms
Micronodular Cirrhosis
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Diabetes
Bronze Skin Coloring
CHF
Arthropathy
Testicular Atrophy
Impotence
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2 mins
Wilson's Disease Symptoms
Cirrhosis
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Basal Ganglia Degeneration
Dementia
Dyskinesia
Asterixis
Kayser-Fleischer Rings
Slit Lamp Exam
Hemolytic Anemia
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2 mins
Wilson's Disease Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Mutation in ATP7B gene
Chromosome 13
Decrease in Ceruloplasmin
Inadequate copper excretion
Liver
Brain
Kidney
Cornea
Joints
Treat with Penicillamine
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2 mins
Diabetes Insipidus Assessment
Polyuria
Nocturia
Low Specific Gravity (USG)
Polydipsia
Dehydration
Hypotension
Tachycardia
Confusion
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2 mins
Syndrome Of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)
Pathophysiology
Hypersecretion of ADH
Increased Sensitivity to ADH
Signs & Symptoms
Serum Hypoosmolality
Coma and Seizure
Dilutional Hyponatremia
Cramps and Tremors
Euvolemia
Change in LOC
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2 mins
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) Nonpharmacologic Interventions
Monitor Serum and Urine Osmolality
IandOs with Daily Weights
Restrict Fluid Intake
Monitor Cardiovascular and Neurological Status
Seizure Precautions
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2 mins
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) Pharmacologic Interventions
Diuretics
Hypertonic IV Fluids
Demeclocycline
Tolvaptan and Conivaptan
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1 min
Marfan Syndrome
Mechanism
Fibrillin-1 Mutation
Symptoms
Autosomal Dominant
Tall
Arachnodactyly
Pectus Excavatum
Hypermobile Joints
Aortic Aneurysm And Dissection
Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP)
Subluxation of Lens (Superior)
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2 mins
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Disease
Pathophysiology
Faulty Collagen Synthesis
Autosomal Dominant or Recessive
Various Severities
Signs and Symptoms
Hypermobile Joints
Hyperextensible Skin
Easy Bruising/Bleeding
Berry (Saccular) Aneurysm
Considerations
Beighton Criteria
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2 mins
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
Decreased Type I Collagen Production
Symptoms
Phenotypically Diverse
Brittle Bone Disease
Fractures from Minimal Trauma
Confused with Child Abuse
Hearing Loss
Dental Imperfections
Blue Sclera
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1 min
Hypoglycemia Assessment
Mechanism
Too much insulin
Decreased glucose
Assessment
< 70 mg/dL
Change in LOC
Lethargic
Confusion and Irritability
Tremors
Diaphoresis
Tachycardia
Vision Changes
Weakness
Seizures
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2 mins
Hypoglycemia Intervention
Interventions
Mild to Moderate Hypoglycemia
Simple Carbohydrate (Oral Dextrose, Fruit Juice, Candies)
Complex Carbohydrate (Whole Grains, Vegetables)
Severe Hypoglycemia or Unconscious
50% Dextrose
Glucagon
Considerations
Monitor Blood Glucose Q 10-15 Minutes
Give Small Meal After Intervention
Patient Education
Hypoglycemia Prevention
Encourage Self-Monitoring
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3 mins

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