Josee Shared "Micro 5" - 44 Picmonics

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Micro 5

Picornavirus
Characteristics
Non-enveloped
RNA Virus
Icosahedral
Positive Sense
A large polypeptide cleaved by proteases
Viruses
Rhinovirus
Poliovirus
Coxsackievirus
Hepatitis A Virus
Echovirus
Aseptic meningitis
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Hepatitis A
Characteristics
Picornavirus
4 Week Incubation Period
Fecal-oral
Day Care Centers
Travel to Developing Countries
Signs and Symptoms
Usually Asymptomatic
Acute Disease
Jaundice
Fever
Vomiting
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Hepatitis A (HAV) Assessment
Transmission
Fecal-Oral
Ingestion of Contaminated Food or Water
Incubation
4 Weeks
Assessment
Fever
General Malaise
Hepatomegaly
Considerations
Self-Limiting
Proper Hand Washing
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Hepatitis B Virus Characteristics
Hepadnavirus
Enveloped
Circular
Partially Double-stranded DNA
Has Reverse Transcriptase
IV Drug Use
Sex
Maternal fetal routes
3 month incubation period
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Hepatitis B Virus Disease
Can turn chronic
< 10% of adults become chronic carriers
90% of newborns become chronic carriers
Cirrhosis
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Membranous Glomerulonephritis
Polyarteritis nodosa
Serum sickness like syndrome
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Hepatitis B (HBV) Assessment
Transmission
Bodily Fluids
Blood Transmission
IV Drug Abusers
Incubation
Variable 1-6 Months
Assessment
Fever
Nausea and Vomiting
Hepatomegaly
Chronic Disease
Cirrhosis
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Considerations
Vaccination
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Hepatitis C
Characteristics
Enveloped
RNA Virus
Flavivirus
Icosahedral
SS positive Linear
Clinical Features
Most Cases are Due to IV Drug Use
Turns to Chronic Hepatitis in Over 70% of Cases
Cirrhosis
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Most Common Indication for Liver Transplantation
Associated With Type I MPGN
Porphyria Cutanea Tarda
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Hepatitis C (HCV) Assessment
Transmission
Blood Transmission
High Risk Sex (rare)
IV Drug Abusers
Incubation
7 Weeks
Chronic Disease
Cirrhosis
Considerations
Barrier Protection
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Yellow Fever Virus
Characteristics
Flavivirus
RNA Virus
Enveloped
Icosahedral
SS Positive Linear
Transmitted By Aedes Mosquitos
Monkey or Human Reservoir
Signs and Symptoms
High fever
Jaundice
Black vomitus
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Clonorchis Sinensis
Pathophysiology
Trematode (Fluke)
Undercooked Fish
Biliary Tract Inflammation
Pigmented Gallstones
Associated with Cholangiocarcinoma
Treatment
Praziquantel
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Leishmania donovani
Pathophysiology
Protozoan
Visceral Leishmaniasis
Hepatosplenomegaly
Spiking Fevers
Skin Pigmentation
Sandfly
Diagnosis
Macrophages with Amastigotes
Treatment
Amphotericin B
Oral Miltefosine
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Schistosoma
Pathophysiology
Trematode (Fluke)
Snail-infested Water
Intense Immune Response
Intestinal Disease
Hepatosplenic Granuloma
Squamous Cell Cancer of the Bladder
Diagnosis
Parasitic Antigens via ELISA
Treatment
Praziquantel
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Echinococcus Granulosus
Pathophysiology
Cestode (Tapeworm)
Ingestion of Eggs from Dog Feces
Hydatid Cysts in Liver
Fibrosis and Necrosis
Anaphylaxis if Antigens Released
Treatment
Albendazole
Surgical Removal
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Staphylococcus aureus Characteristics
Characteristics
Gram-Positive
Cocci
Catalase-Positive
Coagulase-Positive
Beta-Hemolytic
Protein A Virulence Factor
Inhibits Phagocytosis
MRSA
Resistant to Beta Lactams Due to Altered Penicillin Binding Proteins (PBPs)
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Staphylococcus aureus Disease
Skin Infections
Impetigo
Abscesses
Exfoliative Toxin
Scalded Skin Syndrome
Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSST 1)
Binds to MHC II and T Cell Receptor
Food Poisoning
Acute Bacterial Endocarditis
Pneumonia
Osteomyelitis
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Bacillus Cereus Characteristics
Gram-Positive
Bacilli
Endospore Forming
B Hemolytic
Toxins and Enterotoxins
Reheated Rice
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Bacillus Cereus Disease
Signs and Symptoms
Emetic Form
Short Incubation (1-6 Hours)
Nausea and Vomiting
Diarrheal Form
Long Incubation (8-16 Hours)
Diarrhea and GI Pain
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Clostridium perfringens
Characteristics
Gram-Positive
Bacillus
Anaerobe
Spore-Forming
Alpha Toxin Lecithinase
Phospholipase
Heat Labile Enterotoxin
Signs and Symptoms
Myonecrosis
Gas Gangrene
Food Poisoning and Diarrhea
Treatment
Hyperbaric O2 Chamber
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Norovirus
Characteristics
Calicivirus
RNA Virus
Non-enveloped
Icosahedral
SS Positive Linear
Symptoms
Acute Gastroenteritis
Treatment
Supportive Therapy
Considerations
Often found in Cruise Ships
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1 min
Adenovirus
Characteristics
Non-enveloped
Icosahedral
Linear
Double Stranded DNA
Signs and Symptoms
Pharyngitis
Conjunctivitis
Fever
Summer Swimming
Day Care Centers
Acute Hemorrhagic Cystitis
Pneumonia
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