Sarina Shared "Med Surg Exam 1" - 20 Picmonics

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Med Surg Exam 1

Stable Angina
Assessment
Chest Pain with Exertion
Relieved within 15 Minutes
ST Depression
Interventions
Nitroglycerin
Up to 3 Doses q 5 Minutes
Rest
Antiplatelet Medication
CABG
Angioplasty
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2 mins
Unstable Angina
Assessment
Chest Pain with Rest or Exertion
Limits ADLs
> 15 Minutes
Less Likely Relieved by Nitroglycerin
ST Depression
Fatigue
Considerations
Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) Treatment
Emergency Treatment
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2 mins
Primary Hypertension Risk Factors
Excessive Alcohol Consumption
High Sodium Diet
Dyslipidemia
Obesity
African American
Advanced Age
Vitamin D Deficiency
Reduced Nephron number
Diabetes
Lack of Physical Activity
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1 min
Blood Pressure Classification (JNC 7)
Classifications
Normal
Systolic (< 120)
Diastolic (< 80)
Prehypertension
Systolic +20 (120-139)
Diastolic +10 (80-89)
Stage 1 Hypertension
Systolic +20 (140-159)
Diastolic +10 (90-99)
Stage 2 Hypertension
Systolic + > 20 (160)
Diastolic + > 10 (100)
Hypertensive Crisis
Systolic > 180
Diastolic > 110
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4 mins
Hypertension Assessment
Mechanism
Essential Hypertension
Secondary Hypertension
Assessment
Headache
Vision Changes
Nosebleed (Epistaxis)
Chest Pain
Syncope (Fainting)
Diagnosis
Average 2 Sets, 2 Minutes Apart
After 2 or More Visits
Nursing Considerations
Take BP Both Arms
Common in African Americans
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2 mins
Hypertension Intervention
Lifestyle Modifications
Weight Reduction and Exercise
Diet Changes
Relaxation Techniques
Smoking Cessation
Medications
Encourage Self Monitoring
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1 min
Hypertension Medications
Diuretics
Beta Blockers
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
Calcium Channel Blockers
ACE Inhibitors
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1 min
Myocardial Infarction Assessment
Assessment
Substernal Chest Pain
Crushing or Dull Sensation
Arm, Jaw, and Neck
> 20 Minutes
Unrelieved by Nitro
Palpitations
Diaphoresis
Fear of Impending Doom
Nausea and Vomiting
Shortness of Breath
Considerations
Monitor for Arrhythmias
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2 mins
Myocardial Infarction Diagnosis
Diagnosis
12 Lead ECG
ST Elevation
Q Wave
T Wave Inversion
Troponin T and I
CK-MB
Considerations
Early ECG
Cardiac Stress Test
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2 mins
Myocardial Infarction Interventions
MONA
Morphine
Oxygen
Nitrates
Aspirin
Thrombolytics (tPA)
Invasive Procedures
Cardiac Catheterization
Stent Placement
Angioplasty
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)
Considerations
Decrease Modifiable Risk Factors
Resuming Activity (Physical, Sexual)
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2 mins
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)
Indications
ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)
Cardiovascular Disease (CAD)
Uncontrolled Angina
Considerations
Internal Mammary Artery
Saphenous (Leg) Vein
Transient Limb Edema
Closely Monitor Patients
Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) Prophylaxis
Incentive Spirometer
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2 mins
Cardiac Catheterization
Considerations
Fluttering Sensation
Contrast Media
NPO 6-12 Hours
After Procedure
Bed Rest
Assess Circulation
Assess for Bleeding
Monitor Vital Signs
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2 mins
Beta Blockers
"-olol" suffix
Mechanism
Decreases Heart Rate and Contractility
Decreases Peripheral Vascular Resistance
Decreases Renin Release
Indications
Hypertension
Heart Failure
Angina Pectoris
Contraindications
Asthma and Heart Block Patients
Nursing Considerations
Assess Blood Pressure and Heart Rate
Masking Signs of Hypoglycemia
Do Not Stop Abruptly
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2 mins
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
"-pril" Suffix
Mechanism of Action
Block Renin Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS)
Indications
Hypertension
Heart Failure
Side Effects
Dry Non-productive Cough
Hypotension
Dizziness
Possible Hyperkalemia
Angioedema
Nursing Considerations
Slowly Change Position
Do Not Stop Abruptly
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2 mins
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
Ends in "-sartan"
Mechanism of Action
Blocks Angiotensin II Receptor
Indications
Hypertension
Side Effects
Angioedema
Contraindications
Renal Artery Stenosis
Pregnancy
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1 min
Prazosin (Minipress)
-osin suffix
Mechanisms
Selective Alpha-1 Receptor Blocker
Indications
Hypertension
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
Nightmares
Side Effects
Orthostatic Hypotension
Tachycardia
Priapism / Inhibition of Ejaculation
Nasal Congestion
Considerations
First Dose Effect
Administer at Bedtime
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2 mins
Hydralazine (Apresoline)
Indications
Severe Hypertension
CHF
Reduced Afterload
Pregnancy
Mechanism of Action
Vasodilates Arterioles
Side Effects
Drug-induced Lupus
Reflex Tachycardia
Hypotension
Considerations
Combined with Diuretic and Beta Blocker
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1 min
Minoxidil (Loniten, Rogaine)
Mechanism
Vasodilates Arterioles
Indications
Severe Hypertension
Baldness
Side Effects
Reflex Tachycardia
Blood Volume Expansion
Hypertrichosis
Pericardial Effusion
Rash
Considerations
Give with Beta Blocker and Diuretic
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2 mins
Nitroglycerin
Mechanism of Action
Decreases Preload
Indications
Angina
Up to 3 doses q 5 mins
Side Effects
Headache
Hypotension
Contraindications
Viagra (Sildenafil)
Nursing Considerations
Assess Blood Pressure
Protect From Light
Use Glass Bottle and Special Tubing
Gloves for Applying Topically
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2 mins
Sodium Nitroprusside (Nitropress)
Mechanism
Venous and Arterial Dilation
Indications
Hypertensive Crisis
Side Effects
Cyanide Toxicity
Thiocyanate Toxicity
Hypotension
Considerations
Short Term Administration
Light Sensitive, Use Container
Continuous BP Monitoring
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2 mins

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