Ken Shared "UGC quality cards for moderated as of 20160909 10am" - 175 Picmonics

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UGC quality cards for moderated as of 20160909 10am

Week 24
Risk factors for Osteosarcoma
Ewing's Sarcoma
RF features of Osteosarcoma
Imaging modalities for investigating bone lesions
Classification of bone tumours
Most common malignant bone tumours
Most common benign bone tumours
Benign versus malignant
Radiology - age by growth plate closure
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Cranial Nerve Examination
CN I (Olfactory Nerve)
Smell
CN II (Optic Nerve)
Inspect pupil size and symmetry
Visual Acuity
Accomodation
Direct/Consensual Pupillary Reflex
Swinging Light Test
CN III, IV, VI
H Test
CN V (Trigeminal Nerve)
Facial Sensation
Clench jaw and Open against resistance (Motor)
CN VII
Facial Motor (Raise eyebrows, scrunch up eyes, purse lips, show teeth, puff out cheeks)
CN VIII (Vestibulocochlear Nerve)
Whisper
Weber's Test
Rinne's Test
CN IX, X
Cough and Swallow
Say "Ahh" and inspect palate
CN XI (Accessory Nerve)
Turn head & Shrug shoulder
CN XII
Stick out tongue and press into cheek
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Acute abdomen/ SBO LBO
bowels: DPT VC FART
imaging SBO signs / LBO signs - DANA DACS
Investigations - Wee Goes In - LE CRAPA
Managment - BO
Obstruction complications - PIS
General causes of abdo pain - HOT PI
HACCA TOIS (SBO/LBO ) kids - AVAI
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Seizure Questions
Prodrome
Unusual posturing?
Jerking?
Incontinence?
Cyanosis during the episode?
Memory of the episode afterwards?
Confused after an episode?
Muscle pain after an episode?
Wake up with a cut tongue after the episode?
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Seizure and epilepsy - Week 21
Pathophys - epilepsy
Causes of epilepsy
Differentials for Eldery and adolescent
Investigations of seizure
Management - Short and long
Pharmacological management
Phenytoin adverse effects
Newly diagnosed - subjects to discuss
Diagnosis - EEG
Febrile seizures
Clinical features (differentiating from syncope)
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Anaesthetics - GA and LA
LA - chars and performance determined by..
LA - contraindications
Ideal GA
Inhaled GA
Side effects of GA
Induction and recovery kinetics of GA depend on
GA contraindications
Stages of anesthesia
IV anaesthetics
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Werdnig Hoffman
Werdnig-Hoffman
Autosomal Recessive
Congenital degeneration of anterior horns of spinal cord
Symmetric weakness (vs. Poliomyelitis which has all the same symptoms, but asymmetric weakness)
LMN lesions only
Can cause polyhydramnios
“Floppy baby” with marked hypotonia and tongue fasciculations (LMN!)
Infantile type has median age of death of 7 months
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Gynaecomastia
Drugs
Radiotherapy
Cirrhosis
Hypogonadism
Renal Failure
Hyperthyroidism
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Squamous Cell Carcinoma (penis)
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Penis
Associated with HPV
Associated with lack of circumcision
More common in Asia, Africa, South America
Precursor in sit lesions
Bowen disease-in situ carcinoma of the penile shaft or scrotum that presents as leukoplakia
Erythroplasia of Queyrat - in situ carcinoma on the glans that presents as erythroplakia
Bowenoid papulosis - in situ carcinoma that presents as multiple reddish papules (unclear malignant potential, may not progress to invasive
Bowenoid Papulosis - Seen in younger patients (40s)
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Medullary Carcinoma of Breast
Medullary Carcinoma of Breast
Characterized by large, high-grade cells growing in sheets with associated lymphocytes and plasma cells
Fleshy, cellular, lymphocytic infiltrate
Grows as a well-circumscribed mass that can mimic fibroadenoma on mammography
Relatively good prognosis
Increased incidence in BRCA1 carriers
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WBC in Urine Investigations
Microscopic examination (urinalysis)
Urine culture
Wright and Hansel Stain to detect eosinophils (for AIN)
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Congenital Long QT Syndrome
Defects in membrane K+ channel
Defects in membrane K+ channel
Sudden death
Sudden death
Romano ward syndrome
Romano ward syndrome
Jervell and Land-Nielsen syndrome
Jervell and Land-Nielsen syndrome
Treatment
Treatment
Refrain from vigorous exercise
Refrain from vigorous exercise
treat with beta blockers
treat with beta blockers
Calcium Supplements
Calcium Supplements
Potassium (K+)
Potassium (K+)
Magnesium (Mg2+)
Magnesium (Mg2+)
Symptomatic Stage
Symptomatic Stage
lightheadedness
lightheadedness
Palpitations
Palpitations
syncopal episodes
syncopal episodes
Seizures
Seizures
Treat with Pacemaker
Treat with Pacemaker
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Acute Mastitis and Periductal Mastitis
Acute Mastitis
Acute Mastitis
Bacterial infection of the breast, usually due to Staphylococcus aureus
Associated with breast-feeding
Fissures develop in the Nipple providing a route of entry for microbes
Presents as an erythematous breast with purulent nipple discharge; may progress to abscess formation
Treat with antibiotics and continue breastfeeding (to drain the boob)
Periductal Mastitis
Periductal Mastitis
Inflammation of the subareolar ducts
Presents with nipple retraction
Usually seen in smokers
Relative vitamin A deficiency results in squamous metaplasia of lactiferous ducts, producing duct blockage and inflammation
Both: Lactiferous Sinus/Major Duct
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Ductal Carcinoma in Situ
Fills ductal lumen
Arises from ductal atypia
Often seen early as microcalcifications on mammography
Malignant
No basement membrane penetration
Comedo Type (Comedocarcinoma): Ductal with central necrosis
Tx: Lumpectomy
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Dorsal Column
proprioception
Touch
Pressure
Pressure
Vibration
Decussate at Medulla
Vitamin B12 Deficiency
Neurosyphilis
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Meningitis - Week 22
Common causes of meningitis - Bacterial, Viral, Fungal
Triad - Holy Fucking Shit -it's the - Crazy RuSSiaNs
Signs of meningism
Investigations - CLAP FOR
Diagnosis of meningitis
Empiral treatment
Acute management - Bacterial menigitis suspected
Long term complications of men-in-tights
LP Contraindications - BALlS UP
complications of LP - four 'H's
Causes of Encephalitis - EnCEPHA
Meningitis Risk factors - STALIN
Drug induced aseptic meningitis -Drug induced RANT
RED FLAGS - headache history and meningitis -
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Acute Tubular Necrosis
Oliguric phase (I)
Diuretic phase (II)
recovery phase (III)
Renal Ischemia
IV Contrast
Aminoglycosides
Complications
Hyperkalemia
Pulmonary Edema
Hyperuricemia
Metabolic Acidosis
Infection
clinical features
weight gain and edema
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Sirolimus (Rapamycin)
Sirolimus (rapamycin)
mTOR inhibitor
Binds FKBP
Blocks T cell activation and B cell differentiaion by preventing response to IL-2
Kidney Transplant rejection prophylaxis
Side effect: Pancytopenia
Side effect: Increased Insulin Resistance
Side effect: Hyperlipidemia
Also used in drug eluting stents
NOT nephrotoxic
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Hydatidiform Mole
Hydatidiform mole
Cystic swelling of chorionic villi and proliferation of chorionic epithelium (only trophoblast)
Presents with vaginal bleeding, uterine enlargement more than expected, pelvic pressure/pain
hCG much higher than expected for date of gestation.
hCG is produced by Syncytiotrophoblast of placenta
Classically presents in the second trimester as passage of grape-like masses through the vaginal canal
Associated with hCG-mediated sequelae: early preeclampsia (before 20 weeks)
Risk factors: Extremes of age (40), diet deficient in folate or B-carotene
Associated with: hyperemesis gravidarum
Associated with hyperthyroidism
Associated with Theca Lutein Cyst
Tx: Dilation and Curettage (DandC)
Tx: Follow with weekly B-HCG
Tx: Methotrexate
Complete Mole
Complete Mole
46,XX; 46,XY
Most villi are hydropic
Most commonly enucleated egg + single sperm (subsequently duplicates paternal DNA)
Heavily increased hCG
Imaging: “Honeycombed” uterus or “clusters of grapes”
“Snowstorm” on ultrasound
Higher risk of malignancy (15-20%) and choriocarcinoma (2%)
Partial Mole
Partial Mole
69,XXX; 69,XXY; 69,XYY
2 sperm + 1 egg (normal ovum)
Fetal Parts
No change in uterus size
Some villi are hydropic, and some are normal
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Acute (Allergic) Interstitial Nephritis
Causes
Allergic reaction to drugs
Infection
Autoimmune disorders (SLE, Sjogren, Sarcoidosis)
Presentation
Fever
Rash
Arthralgias
Investigations
FBC (show eosinophilia)
UEC (Urea, electrolytes and creatinine)
Urinalysis (shows eosinophiluria, Blood)
Treatments
Stop drugs
Control (Stop) infection
Corticosteroids (Prednisone, Hydrocortisone, Methylprednisolone)
Dialysis (if severe)
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