Patrick Shared "Pharm 4" - 56 Picmonics

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Pharm 4

Acetazolamide
Indications
Glaucoma
Altitude Sickness
Pseudotumor Cerebri
CHF
Metabolic Alkalosis
Mechanism of Action
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor
Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) Diuresis
Side Effects
Metabolic Acidosis
Paresthesias
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1 min
Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
Characteristics
-statin Suffix
Mechanism
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Indications
High Cholesterol
Side Effects
Hepatotoxicity
Rash
Rhabdomyolysis
Myopathy
Considerations
Monitor Liver Enzymes
Administer at Bedtime
Avoid Grapefruit
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2 mins
Bile Acid Resins
Indications
Hyperlipidemia
Mechanism of Action
Bile Acid Reabsorption Prevented
Slight Increase HDL/Triglycerides
Decrease LDL
Drugs
Colestipol (Colestid)
Cholestyramine
Colesevelam
Side Effects
Cholesterol Gallstones
Decreased Absorption of Fat-soluble Vitamins
Patients Hate It
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2 mins
Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Na+ Channel Blockers)
Indications
Arrhythmias
Mechanism of Action
Increase AP, ERP, and QT interval.
Drugs
Disopyramide
Procainamide
Drug-induced Lupus
Quinidine
Cinchonism
Shared Side Effects
Thrombocytopenia
Torsades de Pointes
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1 min
Distal Tubule
Characteristics
Hormonally Regulated
Aldosterone Causes Na+ Reabsorption
Na+ Reabsorbed Via Active Transport
Water follows Na+
Parathyroid Hormone Causes Ca2+ Reabsorption
Leads to Collecting Duct
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1 min
Ethacrynic Acid
Mechanism of Action
Non-sulfa Drug
Phenoxyacetic Acid Derivative
Loop Diuretic
Inhibits Na+-K+-2Cl- Cotransporter
Thick Ascending Loop of Henle
Clinical Use
Diuresis
Side Effects
Hypokalemia
Ototoxicity
Gout
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2 mins
Ezetimibe
Indications
Hyperlipidemia
Mechanism of Action
Cholesterol Absorption Blocker
Decreases LDL
Side Effects
Diarrhea
Increased LFT Values
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56 secs
Fibrates
Indications
Hyperlipidemia
Mechanism of Action
Upregulate LPL
Decreases Triglycerides
Slight Increase in HDL
Slight Decrease in LDL
Side Effect
Hepatotoxicity
Cholesterol Gallstones
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1 min
Heart Failure Interventions
Diagnostic Tests
Echocardiogram
Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring
Improve Gas Exchange
High Fowler's Position
Oxygen
Advanced Airway
Drugs and Devices
Diuretics
Beta Blockers
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
ACE Inhibitors
Digoxin (Lanoxin)
Pacemaker
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2 mins
Hydralazine
Indications
Reduce Afterload
Severe Hypertension
Safe during Pregnancy
CHF
Mechanism of Action
Increases cGMP
Vasodilates Arterioles
Side Effects
Drug-induced Lupus
Reflex Tachycardia
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1 min
Hydrochlorothiazide HCTZ
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Reabsorption NaCl and H2O
Indications
Edema
Mild to Moderate Hypertension
Side Effects
Hypokalemia
Hyponatremia
Dehydration
Hyperglycemia
Gout
Contraindications
Sulfa Allergy
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
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1 min
Hypertension Medications
Diuretics
Beta Blockers
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
Calcium Channel Blockers
ACE Inhibitors
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1 min
K+ Sparing Diuretics
Indications
CHF and Hypertension
Hypokalemia
Hyperaldosteronism
Mechanism of Action
Collecting Tubule
Spironolactone
Competitive Aldosterone Receptor Antagonist
Amiloride and Triamterene
Block Na+ Channels
Side Effects
Hyperkalemia
Gynecomastia
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2 mins
Loop Diuretics
Mechanism of Action
Thick Ascending Limb of Loop of Henle
Inhibits Na+-K+-2Cl- Symporter
Sulfa Drug
Drug Names
Furosemide
Lasix
Side Effects
Gout
Ototoxicity
Hypocalcemia
Hypokalemia
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4 mins
Niacin Therapy (Vitamin B3)
Mechanism
Inhibits Lipolysis in Adipose Tissue
Reduces Hepatic VLDL Secretion
Indications
Decrease Triglycerides
Decrease LDL
Increase HDL
Side Effects
Flushing
Decreased by Aspirin
Hyperglycemia
Hyperuricemia
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2 mins
Proximal Tubule
Characteristics
Na+ Reabsorbed Via Active Transport
Water Follows Na+
Most Of Glucose Reabsorbed
Most Of Amino Acids Reabsorbed
Bicarbonate Exchanged For H+
Drugs and Toxins Excreted
Filtrate Osmolarity Same As Plasma
Leads To Loop Of Henle
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2 mins
Spironolactone (Aldactone)
Mechanisms
Inhibition of Aldosterone
Potassium Retention
Indications
Hypertension
Edema
Heart Failure
Side Effects
Hyperkalemia
Endocrine Effects
Consideration
Avoid Potassium Supplements
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2 mins
Statins
Rhabdomyolysis
Hepatotoxicity
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
Decrease LDL
Decrease Triglycerides
Increase HDL
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2 mins
Thiazide Diuretics
Early Distal Tubule
Inhibits NaCl Reabsorption
Sulfa Drug
Hyperglycemia
Hyperlipidemia
Hypercalcemia
Hyperuricemia
Hyponatremia
Hypokalemic Metabolic Alkalosis
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2 mins
Vitamin B3 - Niacin (Nicotinic Acid)
Mechanism
Decreases Triglycerides
Decreases LDL
Increases HDL
Indications
Dyslipidemia
Pellagra
Diarrhea
Dermatitis
Dementia
Side Effects
Flushing
GI Distress
Hepatotoxicity
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2 mins

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