Atzhang4690 Shared "2015 Study Guide Endocrine" - 42 Picmonics

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2015 Study Guide Endocrine

Adrenal Gland (Advanced)
Characteristics
Adrenal Cortex
Zona Glomerulosa
Aldosterone
Zona Fasciculata
Cortisol
Zona Reticularis
Androgens
Adrenal Medulla
Chromaffin Cells
Epinephrine & Norepinephrine
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2 mins
Pancreas
Characteristics
Acinar Cells Release Digestive Enzymes
Ductal Epithelial Cells Release Bicarbonate
Islets of Langerhans
Beta Cells Release Insulin
Alpha Cells Release Glucagon
Delta Cells Release Somatostatin
Somatostatin Inhibits Alpha and Beta Cells
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3 mins
Posterior Pituitary
Characteristics
Neuroendocrine Reflex Stimulation (By Hypothalamus)
Direct Hormones
Vasopressin
Increased Water Retention (In Kidneys)
Oxytocin
Increased Uterine Contraction
Mammary Glands Contraction
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2 mins
Anterior Pituitary
Characteristics
Hypothalamic Control
FLAT PeG Mnemonic
Tropic Hormones
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Lutenizing Hormone (LH)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Direct Hormones
Prolactin (PRL)
Growth Hormone (GH)
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2 mins
Hypothalamus
Characteristics
Anterior Pituitary Stimulated Through the Hypophyseal Portal
GHRH
GnRH
TRH
PIF
CRF Released During Stress
Posterior Pituitary Stimulated Through Neural Control
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3 mins
17 Alpha Hydroxylase Deficiency
Decreased Cortisol
Decreased Sex Hormones
Increased Mineralocorticoids (DOC)
Hypertension
Hypokalemia
XY Externally Phenotypic Female
No Internal Reproductive Structures Due to Mullerian Inhibitory Factor
XX Externally Phenotypic Female
Sexual Infantilism
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2 mins
21 Hydroxylase Deficiency
Pathophysiology
Decreased Cortisol
Increased 17 Hydroxyprogesterone
Decreased Aldosterone
Signs and Symptoms
Hypotension
Increased Renin
Hyperkalemia
Female Pseudohermaphroditism
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2 mins
11 Beta-Hydroxylase Deficiency
Pathophysiology
Decreased Cortisol
Decreased Aldosterone
Increased Sex Hormones
Increased 11 Deoxycorticosterone (11 DOC)
Signs and Symptoms
Hypertension
Masculinization
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1 min
Steroid Hormones
Characteristics
Nuclear Membrane
Long-Lived and Slow-Acting
Cholesterol-Derived
Intracellular Receptors
DNA Transcription
Examples
Testosterone
Aldosterone
Estrogen
Cortisol
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2 mins
Cushing's Syndrome Characteristics
More Common in Women
Exogenous Etiologies
Glucocorticoids
Endogenous Etiologies
Decreased ACTH
Primary Adrenal Disease
Increased ACTH
Pituitary Adenoma (Cushing's Disease)
Paraneoplastic: Small Cell Carcinoma
CRF-releasing Tumors
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2 mins
Cushing's Syndrome Symptoms And Diagnosis
Symptoms/Findings
Osteoporosis
Amenorrhea
Truncal Obesity
Skin changes
Buffalo Hump
Immune Suppression
Moon Facies
Hypertension
Decreased insulin sensitivity
Diagnosis
24-hour urine free Cortisol
Dexamethasone Suppression Test
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2 mins
Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome
Acute 1° Adrenal Insufficiency
Adrenal Hemorrhage
Hypotension
Neisseria meningitidis
DIC
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1 min
Addison's Disease
Mechanism
Chronic 1° Adrenal Insufficiency
Atrophy
Destruction
Symptoms
Deficiency In Cortisol And Aldosterone
Skin Hyperpigmentation
Increased POMC
Hypotension
Hyperkalemia
Acidosis
Addisonian Crisis
Diagnosis
ACTH (Cosyntropin) Stimulation Test
Treatment
Exogenous Cortisol
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2 mins
Pheochromocytoma
Cause/Mechanism
Adrenal Medulla Tumor
Increased Catecholamines
Assessment
Episodic Hypertension
Diaphoresis
Abdominal or Chest Pain
Interventions
Surgery
Antihypertensives
Phenoxybenzamine
Metyrosine (Demser)
Considerations
Do Not Palpate Abdomen
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3 mins
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
Symptoms
Hypothyroidism with Bouts of Hyperthyroidism
Enlarged, Nontender Thyroid
Mechanism
Autoimmune
Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO)
Anti-Thyroglobulin
Lab Findings
Hurthle Cells
Lymphoid Follicles
Associations
HLA-DR5 and HLA-DR3
Increased Risk Of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
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2 mins
Graves' Disease Characteristics
Women 20-40 years old
Pathophysiology
Anti-TSH Receptor Antibodies
Symptoms
Ophthalmopathy
Exophthalmos
Hyperthyroidism
Goiter
Pretibial Myxedema
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1 min
Graves' Disease Labs and Treatment
Labs
Decreased TSH
Increased T3
Increased T4
Radioactive Iodine Uptake (RAIU)
Treatment
Beta blocker
Methimazole
Radioiodine Ablation
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1 min
Prolactinoma
Pituitary Adenoma
Galactorrhea
Prolactin Inhibits Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
Impotence
Amenorrhea
Bitemporal Hemianopsia
Treat with Dopamine
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2 mins
Sheehan's Syndrome
Postpartum Pituitary Gland Necrosis
Agalactorrhea
Amenorrhea
Secondary Hypothyroidism with Cold Intolerance
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1 min
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Signs and Symptoms
Kussmaul respirations
Dehydration
Abdominal Pain
Nausea/vomiting
Psychosis
Fruity breath Odor
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1 min

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