Peter Shared "Endocrine" - 472 Picmonics

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Endocrine

Hypothalamus
Characteristics
Anterior Pituitary Stimulated Through the Hypophyseal Portal
GHRH
GnRH
TRH
PIF
CRF Released During Stress
Posterior Pituitary Stimulated Through Neural Control
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3 mins
Peptide Hormones
Characteristics
Fast-Acting and Short-Lived
Bind To Cell Membrane Receptors
Stimulate Secondary Messengers
Amino Acid-Derived
Examples
Insulin
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Vasopressin
Oxytocin
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2 mins
Pharyngeal Arch Derivatives: 1st Arch
Cartilage
Meckel's Cartilage
Mandible
Malleus
Incus
Sphenomandibular Ligament
Muscles
Muscles of Mastication
Tensor Tympani
Tensor Veli Palatini
Anterior Belly of the Digastric
Mylohyoid
Nerves
CN V2
CN V3
Conditions
Treacher Collins Syndrome
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2 mins
Pharyngeal Arch Derivatives: 2nd Arch
Cartilage
Reichert's Cartilage
Stapes
Styloid Process
Lesser Horn of Hyoid
Stylohyoid Ligament
Muscles
Muscles of Facial Expression
Stapedius
Stylohyoid
Platysma
Posterior Belly of Digastric
Nerves
CN VII
Conditions
Congenital Pharyngocutaneous Fistula
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2 mins
Pharyngeal Arch Derivatives: 3rd Arch
Cartilage
Greater Horn of Hyoid
Muscles
Stylopharyngeus
Nerves
CN IX (Glossopharyngeal)
Arteries
Common Carotid
Internal Carotid
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1 min
Pharyngeal Arch Derivatives: 4-6 Arches
Cartilage
Thyroid
Cricoid
Arytenoids
Corniculate
Cuneiform
Muscles
4th: Cricothyroid
4th: Pharyngeal Constrictors
6th: Intrinsic Muscles of Larynx
Nerves
4th: CN X (Vagus Nerve)
Superior Laryngeal Branch
6th: CN X (Vagus Nerve)
Recurrent Laryngeal Branch
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2 mins
Branchial Pouches: 1st Pouch
Endoderm Lines the Auditory Tube
Middle Ear Cavity
Eustachian Tube
Mastoid Air Cells
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1 min
Branchial Pouches: 2nd Pouch
Palatine Tonsils
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37 secs
Branchial Pouches: 3rd Pouch
Separates into Dorsal and Ventral Wings
Dorsal Wings
Inferior Parathyroid Glands
Ventral Wings
Thymus
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1 min
Branchial Pouches: 4th Pouch
Separates into Dorsal and Ventral Wings
Dorsal Wings
Superior Parathyroid Glands
Ventral Wings
Parafollicular (C) Cells of Thyroid Gland
Formed by Neural Crest Cells
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1 min
Posterior Pituitary
Characteristics
Neuroendocrine Reflex Stimulation (By Hypothalamus)
Direct Hormones
Vasopressin
Increased Water Retention (In Kidneys)
Oxytocin
Increased Uterine Contraction
Mammary Glands Contraction
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2 mins
Collecting Duct
Characteristics
Na+ Reabsorption via Passive Transport
Vasopressin Causes Water reabsorption
Concentrates Filtrate
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2 mins
Low Blood Pressure Response
Characteristics
Posterior Pituitary Releases Vasopressin
Vasoconstriction
Adrenal Cortex Releases Aldosterone
Increased Na+ and H2O Reabsorption
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1 min
Distal Tubule
Characteristics
Hormonally Regulated
Aldosterone Causes Na+ Reabsorption
Na+ Reabsorbed Via Active Transport
Water follows Na+
Parathyroid Hormone Causes Ca2+ Reabsorption
Leads to Collecting Duct
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1 min
Desmopressin (DDAVP)
Synthetic vasopressin (ADH)
Binds V2 (renal and endothelial cells)
renal
Central Diabetes Insipidus
Nocturia
Bed Wetting (Nocturnal enuresis)
Heme
Stimulates Weibel-Palade bodies (endothelial cell)
Von Willbrand factor
Factor VIII
Von Willebrand Disease
Hemophilia A (factor 8 def)
Thrombocytopenia
Uremia (platelet aggregation)
Side Effects
Hyponatremia (fluid retention)
Nausea and Vomiting
Seizures
Confusion / Lethargy
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Von Willebrand Disease
Mixed platelet and coagulation disorder
Mechanism
Autosomal Dominant Condition Leading to Reduced vWF
Defect in platelet plug formation
Labs
Increased Bleeding Time
PTT increased
Factor VIII decreased
Normal platelet count
Treatment
DDAVP (synthetic vasopressin)
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1 min
Hemophilia A, B, C
X-linked Recessive
A: Low Factor 8
Hemarthrosis, Intramuscular Hematoma, Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Mgmt: DDAVP + aminocaproic acid (anti-fibrinolytic)
B: Low Factor 9
C: Low Factor 11 | Autosomal Recessive
Increased PTT (Intrinsic) ONLY
Complications: Hemosiderin deposition, fibrosis
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Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) Pharmacologic Interventions
Diuretics
Hypertonic IV Fluids
Demeclocycline
Tolvaptan and Conivaptan
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1 min
Syndrome Of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)
Pathophysiology
Hypersecretion of ADH
Increased Sensitivity to ADH
Signs & Symptoms
Serum Hypoosmolality
Coma and Seizure
Dilutional Hyponatremia
Cramps and Tremors
Euvolemia
Change in LOC
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2 mins
Diabetes Insipidus Assessment
Polyuria
Nocturia
Low Specific Gravity (USG)
Polydipsia
Dehydration
Hypotension
Tachycardia
Confusion
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2 mins

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