Jonathan Shared "Antimicrobial Pharmacology" - 61 Picmonics

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Antimicrobial Pharmacology

Zanamivir (Relenza) and Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
Indications
Influenza A and B
Treatment and Prophylaxis
Mechanism
Inhibits Release of New Virus
Inhibits Influenza Neuraminidase
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1 min
Vancomycin Side Effects & Toxicity
Side Effects
Thrombophlebitis
Nephrotoxicity
Ototoxicity
Diffuse Flushing Called Red Man Syndrome
Prevent with Antihistamine
Prevent with Slow Infusion
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2 mins
Vancomycin Mechanism
Bacteriostatic and Bactericidal
Gram-Positive
Inhibits Cell Wall Mucopeptide
Binds to D-ala D-ala
Resistance with change to D-ala D-lac
Staphylococcus aureus
Orally for Clostridium difficile
Enterococci
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2 mins
Trimethoprim
Mechanism of Action
Bacteriostatic
Inhibits Bacterial Dihydrofolate Reductase
Causes Sequential Block of Folate Synthesis
Used in Combination with Sulfamethoxazole
Combination Used For Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections
Indications
Shigella
Salmonella
Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia
Side Effects
Decrease in Red and White Blood Cells
Alleviated with Leucovorin Rescue
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2 mins
Tetracycline Toxicities
Inhibition of Bone Growth in Children
Teratogen
Discoloration of Teeth
Photosensitivity
GI Distress
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2 mins
Tetracycline Mechanism
Binds to 30 S to Prevent Attachment of Aminoacyl tRNA
Limited CNS Penetration
Divalent Cations Inhibit Absorption
Must Not Take with Milk, Antacids, Iron
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1 min
Tetracycline Drug Names and Indications
Drug Names
Demeclocycline
Minocycline
Doxycycline
Fecally Eliminated
Can be Used in Renal Failure
Indications
Antidiuretic Hormone Antagonist
Chlamydia
Rickettsia
Borrelia burgdorferi
Helicobacter Pylori
Mycoplasma Pneumonia
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3 mins
Terbinafine
Indications
Dermatophytosis
Onychomycosis
Mechanism
Inhibits Squalene Epoxidase
Side Effects
Hepatotoxicity
GI Distress
Taste Disturbances
Headache
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2 mins
Sulfonamides Side Effects
Side Effects
Hypersensitivity
Nephrotoxicity
Photosensitivity
Kernicterus in Infants
Displaces Warfarin from Albumin
Considerations
Hemolysis with G6PD Deficiency
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3 mins
Sulfonamides Mechanisms
Bacteriostatic
Gram-Positive
Gram-Negative
Nocardia
Chlamydia
PABA antimetabolites
Inhibit dihydropteroate synthase
Sulfamethoxazole
Sulfisoxazole
Sulfadiazine
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1 min
Sulfa Drug Allergies
Sulfasalazine
Sulfonylureas
Thiazide Diuretics
Acetazolamide
Furosemide Diuretic
Celecoxib
Probenecid
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49 secs
Rifampin
Tuberculosis (TB)
Blocks RNA Polymerization
Haemophilus influenzae Type B
Leprosy
Meningitis
P450 inducer
Red-orange urine
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55 secs
Ribavirin
Mechanism
Hypermutation in RNA Viruses
Inhibits Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase
Indications
Hepatitis C
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
Side Effects
Hemolytic Anemia
Teratogen
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1 min
Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
Drug Names
30S inhibitors
Aminoglycosides
Tetracyclines
50S inhibitors
Chloramphenicol
Clindamycin
Erythromycin
Lincomycin
Linezolid
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3 mins
Protease Inhibitors
End in "-navir"
Indications
HIV/AIDS
Hepatitis C
Mechanism
Inhibit Protease
Unable to Cleave Proteins
Inhibits Maturation of New Virus
Side Effects
GI Distress
Nephropathy
Lipodystrophy
Hyperglycemia
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3 mins
Polymyxins
Mechanism of Action
Cationic
Act Like Detergents
Bind to Cell Membranes of Bacteria
Disrupt Their Osmotic Properties
Indications
Resistant Gram-Negative Infections
Side Effects
Neurotoxicity
Renal tubular necrosis
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3 mins
Penicillin
Gram Positive
Spirochetes
Bind PBPs
Block Transpeptidase Cross-linking of Cell Wall
Activate Autolytic Enzymes
Bactericidal
Hypersensitivity Reactions
Hemolytic Anemia
Beta-lactamase Sensitive
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2 mins
Nystatin
Indications
Candidiasis
Vaginal
Oral
Cutaneous
Mechanism
Polyene
Binds Ergosterol
Forms Membrane Pores
Topical form of Amphotericin B
Side Effects
Rash
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1 min
NRTIs (Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors)
Indications
HIV
Pregnancy and Prophylaxis given ZDV
Mechanism
Inhibit Nucleotide Binding to Reverse Transcriptase
Chain Termination
Require Phosphorylation
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1 min
NRTI Toxicity
Bone Marrow Suppression
Reverse with G-CSF and Erythropoietin
Rash
Neuropathy
Anemia
Pancreatitis
Lactic Acidosis
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1 min

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