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Epidemio & Ethics 2
(Asks) "What's Happening?"
Data at One Specific Point in Time
(Finds) Frequency of Disease
Case Control Study
Compares those with disease to those without
(Asks) "What happened?"
Studies risk from exposure
(Asks) "Who developed disease?"
(Asks) "Who will develop disease?"
Relative Risk (RR)
Used in Cohort Studies
Risk of Developing Disease
a / (a + b)
Divided by /
c / (c + d)
When Low Prevalence Odds Ratio Approximates Relative Risk
Odds Ratio (OR)
Case Control Studies
Measures Association Between an Exposure and an Outcome
Odds of Exposure in Diseased (Sick) Group
a / c
Odds of Exposure in Healthy Group
b / d
=1 Exposure does not affect odds
> 1 Exposure increases disease
< 1 Exposure decreases disease
Attributable Risk (AR)
Proportion Exposure Increases Disease
Incidence of Diseased (Sick)
a / (a + b)
c / (c + d)
Bias is a personal or social perspective
Bias affects the way people view a situation
Examples of Bias
Conflict of interest or funding bias
Strong opinions about the hypothesis
Surprised by findings
TP / (FN+TP)
TN / (TN + FP)
Validity vs. Reliability
A valid experiment tests the hypothesis, but may not be reliable
A reliable experiment is repeatable with consistent results, but may not be valid
Some experiments are neither valid nor reliable
An experiment should be valid and reliable for the conclusion to be trustworthy
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