Jose Shared "Epidemio & Ethics 2" - 10 Picmonics

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Epidemio & Ethics 2

Cross-Sectional Study
Observational
(Asks) "What's happening?"
Data at one specific point in time
(Finds) frequency of disease
Measurement
Prevalence
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49 secs
Case Control Study
Observational
Retrospective
Compares those with disease to those without
(Asks) "What happened?"
Measurement
Odds Ratio
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47 secs
Cohort Study
Observational
Longitudinal
Studies risk from exposure
Retrospective
(Asks) "Who developed disease?"
Prospective
(Asks) "Who will develop disease?"
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1 min
Relative Risk (RR)
Use
Used in Cohort Studies
Formula
Risk of Developing Disease
Equals =
Exposed Group
a / (a + b)
Divided by /
Unexposed Group
c / (c + d)
When Low Prevalence Odds Ratio Approximates Relative Risk
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2 mins
Odds Ratio (OR)
Use
Case Control Studies
Measures Association Between an Exposure and an Outcome
Formula
Odds of Exposure in Diseased (Sick) Group
a / c
Divided /
Odds of Exposure in Healthy Group
b / d
Interpretation
=1 Exposure does not affect odds
> 1 Exposure increases disease
< 1 Exposure decreases disease
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2 mins
Attributable Risk (AR)
Use
Proportion Exposure Increases Disease
Formula
Incidence of Diseased (Sick)
Equals =
Exposed Group
a / (a + b)
Minus -
Unexposed Group
c / (c + d)
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1 min
Bias
Bias is a personal or social perspective
Bias affects the way people view a situation
Examples of Bias
Conflict of interest or funding bias
Personal Prejudices
Strong opinions about the hypothesis
Surprised by findings
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2 mins
Sensitivity
Characteristics
Rules Out
Screening Test
Formula
TP / (FN+TP)
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2 mins
Specificity
Characteristics
Rules In
Confirmatory Test
Formula
TN / (TN + FP)
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1 min
Validity vs. Reliability
A valid experiment tests the hypothesis, but may not be reliable
A reliable experiment is repeatable with consistent results, but may not be valid
Some experiments are neither valid nor reliable
An experiment should be valid and reliable for the conclusion to be trustworthy
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2 mins

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